How to get rid of Diabetes

*Logic of the Liver for treatment of human body*

Dr.Biswaroop Roy Choudhury`s Diets Program

Some Important Website for your need

Hey Webber

A lot websites with different functions are present on internet but some of them are unknown to us.
I’m writing this article to provide you the websites that are most used by the people.
In this 101 websites are given these will help you a lot .

  • – record movies of your desktop and send them straight to YouTube.
  • – capture screenshots of web pages on mobile and desktops.
  •– shorten long URLs and convert URLs into OR codes.
  •– find the original URL that’s hiding behind a short URL.
  • qClock– find the local time of a city using a Goo* Map.
  • -copy special characters that aren’t on your keyboard.
  • – a better search engine for twitter.
  • – create flowcharts, network diagrams, sitemaps, etc.
  • iconfindercom – the best place to find icons of all sizes.
  • – download templates, clipart and images for your Office documents.
  • – the easiest way to setup email reminders.
  • – scan any suspicious file or email attachment for viruses.
  • wolfra malpha .com – gets answers directly without searching.
  • printwhatyouli – print web pages without the clutter.
  • – reformats news articles and blog content as a newspaper.
  • – a search engine for RSS feeds.
  • – a simple online timer for your daily needs.
  • – if a site is down due to heavy traffic, try accessing it through coral CON.
  • – pick random numbers, flip coins, and more.
  • – lets you can quickly edit PDFs in the browser itself.
  • PDFs and Presentations directly in the browser.
  • – simultaneously upload videos to WuTube and other video sites.
  • -online voice recognition in the browser itself.
  • scrim -share you email address online without worrying about seam.
  • – now get read receipts for your email.
  • – visualize and compare the size of any product.
  • – quickly determine the font name from an image.
  • – a good collection of open source fonts.
  • – find data hidden in your photographs -see more BitIF tools.
  • livestream .com – broadcast events live over the web, including your desktop screen.
  • -helps you search domains across all TLDs.
  • – design from scratch or re -model your home in 3d.
  • – share you screen with anyone over the web.
  • – recognize text from scanned PDFs – see other OCR toots.
  •– Track flight status at airports worldwide.
  • – for sharing really big files online.
  • – the site lets you download free Kindle books.
  • polish – check your writing for spelling or grammatical errors.
  • highlight the important parts of a web page for sharing.
  • – work on the same document with multiple people.
  • – planning an event? find a date that works for all.
  • – a less confusing view of the world time zones.
  • – the perfect tool for measuring your site performance online.
  • – print music sheets, write your own music online (review).
  • moire – chat with your buddies on Skype, Facebook, Google Talk, etc. from one place.
  • – translate web pages, PDFs and Office documents.
  • – create paintings and sketches with a wide variety of brushes.
  • – discover new sites that are similar to what you like already.
  • – quick summarize long pieces of text with tag clouds.
  • – create mind -maps, brainstorm ideas in the browser.
  • – get color ideas, also extract colors from photographs.
  • -share your photos in an album instantly.
  • – when your friends are too lazy to use Google on their owl.
  • – when you need to find the name of a song.
  • bing.conVimages– automatically find perfectly -sized wallpapers for mobiles.
  • – send an online fax for free – see more fax services.
  • feed – get RSS feeds as an email newsletter.
  • – quickly send a file to someone, they can even preview it before downloading.
  • -transfer files of any size without uploading to a third -party server.
  • – setup a private chat room in micro -seconds.
  • – create text notes that will self-destruct after being read.
  • boxoh .com –track the status of any shipment on Google Maps – attemative.
  • – when you need to raise funds online for an event or a cause.
  • – find if your favorite website is offline or not?
  • – find the other websites of a person with reverse Analytics lookup.
  • – find the web host of any website.
  • – found something on Google but can’t remember it now?
  • – an online audio editor that lets record, and remix audio clips online.
  • – create a temporary web page that self-destruct.
  • – find definitions of slangs and informal words.
  • – consult this site before choosing a seat for your next flight.
  • – download stock images absolutely free.
  • zoom it – view very high -resolution images in your browser without scrolling.
  • -create custom Google Maps easily.
  • – quickly setup email reminders for important events.
  • – Picnik is offline but PicMonkey is an even better image editor.
  • – you can ask or answer personal questions here.
  • – an excellent layer -based online image editor.
  • -find if that email offer you received is real or just another scam.
  • – master touch-typing with these practice sessions.
  • – send video emits to anyone using your web cam.
  • – create timelines with audio, video and images.
  • – make a movie out of your images, audio and video dips.
  • – check the trust level of any website.
  • – a beautiful to-do app that looks like your paper dairy.
  • – you’ll need this when your bookmarked web pages are deleted.
  • – quickly capture effective notes during meetings.
  • youtube.corn/leanback-Watch YouTube channels in TV mode.
  • – quickly create a video playlist of your favorite artist.
  • – Send tweets longer than 140 characters.
  • – create a free aid simple website using your Dropbox account.
  • built – find the technology stack of any website.
  • – research a website from the SW perspective.
  • – broadcast live audio over the web.
  • – bookmark online videos and watch them later (review).
  • – add OR codes to your documents and presentations (review).
  • – the easiest way to write short text notes in the browser.
  • – send rich -text mails to anyone, anonymously.
  • – hire people to do little things for $5.
  • – easily manage your online files on Dropbox, Google Does, etc.
  • – create a connection between all your online accounts


Intra Atomic & Molecular Forces

Fundamental Forces


Fundamental force concepts

Coupling constants

HyperPhysics***** Quantum Physics R Nave
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The Strong Force

A force which can hold a nucleus together against the enormous forces of repulsion of the protons is strong indeed. However, it is not an inverse square force like the electromagnetic force and it has a very short rangeYukawamodeled the strong force as an exchange force in which the exchange particles are pions and other heavier particles. The range of a particle exchange force is limited by the uncertainty principle. It is the strongest of the four fundamental forces

Since the protons and neutrons which make up the nucleus are themselves considered to be made up of quarks, and the quarks are considered to be held together by the color force, the strong force between nucleons may be considered to be a residual color force. In the standard model, therefore, the basic exchange particle is the gluon which mediates the forces between quarks. Since the individual gluons and quarks are contained within the proton or neutron, the masses attributed to them cannot be used in the range relationship to predict the range of the force. When something is viewed as emerging from a proton or neutron, then it must be at least a quark-antiquark pair, so it is then plausible that the pion as the lightest meson should serve as a predictor of the maximum range of the strong force between nucleons.

The sketch is an attempt to show one of many forms the gluon interaction between nucleons could take, this one involving up-antiup pair production and annihilation and producing a πbridging the nucleons.

Feynman diagrams and the strong force

Fundamental force concepts

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The Electromagnetic Force

One of the four fundamental forces, the electromagnetic force manifests itself through the forces between charges (Coulomb’s Law) and the magnetic force, both of which are summarized in the Lorentz force law. Fundamentally, both magnetic and electric forces are manifestations of an exchange force involving the exchange of photons. The quantum approach to the electromagnetic force is called quantum electrodynamics or QED. The electromagnetic force is a force of infinite range which obeys the inverse square law, and is of the same form as the gravity force.

The electromagnetic force holds atoms and molecules together. In fact, the forces of electric attraction and repulsion of electric charges are so dominant over the other three fundamental forces that they can be considered to be negligible as determiners of atomic and molecular structure. Even magnetic effects are usually apparent only at high resolutions, and as small corrections.


Fundamental force concepts

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The Weak Force

One of the four fundamental forces, the weak interaction involves the exchange of the intermediate vector bosons, the W and the Z. Since the mass of these particles is on the order of 80 GeV, the uncertainty principle dictates a range of about 10-18 meters which is about 0.1% of the diameter of a proton.

The weak interaction changes one flavor of quark into another. It is crucial to the structure of the universe in that

1. The sun would not burn without it since the weak interaction causes the transmutation p -> n so that deuterium can form and deuterium fusion can take place.

2. It is necessary for the buildup of heavy nuclei.

The role of the weak force in the transmutation of quarksmakes it the interaction involved in many decays of nuclear particles which require a change of a quark from one flavor to another. It was in radioactive decay such as beta decay that the existence of the weak interaction was first revealed. The weak interaction is the only process in which a quark can change to another quark, or a lepton to another lepton – the so-called “flavor changes”.

The discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983 was hailed as a confirmation of the theories which connect the weak force to the electromagnetic force in electroweak unification.

The weak interaction acts between both quarks and leptons, whereas the strong force does not act between leptons. “Leptons have no color, so they do not participate in the strong interactions; neutrinos have no charge, so they experience no electromagnetic forces; but all of them join in the weak interactions.”(Griffiths)

Show Feynmann diagrams

Fundamental force concepts

Ch 2

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Feynman Diagrams for Weak Force

A free neutron will decay by emitting a W, which produces an electron and an antineutrino.

When a neutrino interacts with a neutron, a W can be exchanged, transforming the neutron into a proton and producing an electron.

This interaction is the same as the one at left since a W+ going right to left is equivalent to a Wgoing left to right.

A neutron or proton can interact with a neutrino or antineutrino by the exchange of a Z0.

One of the four fundamental forces, the weak interaction involves the exchange of the intermediate vector bosons, the W and the Z. Since the mass of these particles is on the order of 80 GeV, the uncertainty principle dictates a range of about 10-18 meters which is about .1% of the diameter of a proton. The weak interaction changes one flavor of quark into another. For example, in the neutron decay depicted by the Feynman diagram at left above, one down quark is changed to an up quark, transforming the neutron into a proton.

The primitive vertices in the Feynman diagrams for the weak interaction are of two types, charged and neutral. For leptons they take the following form

The electron is used as an example in these diagrams, but any lepton can be substituted on the incoming side. The exit side (top) will be the same for the neutral vertex, but determined by the charge of the W in the charged vertex. Besides conserving charge, the vertex must conserve lepton number, so the process with the electron can produce an electron neutrino but not a muon neutrino.

The neutral interaction is simpler to conceive, but rarely observed because it competes with the much stronger electromagnetic interaction and is masked by it.
With the charged vertices, one can postulate an interaction like
mne -> e, nm and draw a Feynman diagram for it. This interaction is not likely to be oberved because of the incredible difficulty of observing the scattering of neutrinos, but it suggests other interactions which may be obtained by rotating or twisting the diagram.
With a twist of the Feynman diagram above, one can arrive at the interaction responsible for the decay of the muon, so the structures obtained from the primitive vertices can be used to build up a family of interactions. The transformation between the two Feynman diagrams can also be seen as an example of crossing symmetry.

Twisted Feynman diagrams and crossing symmetry

The charged vertices in the weak interaction with quarks take the form

So it is seen that the quark changes its flavor when interacting via the W or W+. As drawn, this interaction cannot be observed because it implies the isolation of an up quark. Because of quark confinement, isolated quarks are not observed. But rotating the Feynman diagram gives an alternative interaction, shown below for both electron and muon products.

This suggests the weak interaction mechanism for the decay of the pion, which is observed to happen by the muon pathway.

The weak interaction in the electron form at left above is responsible for the decay of the neutron and for b

The laws list

Laws, rules, principles, effects, paradoxes, limits, constants, experiments, & thought-experiments in physics.

The laws list is a list of various laws, rules, principles, and other related topics in physics and astronomy.This list is not intended to be complete.
The laws list originally started out strictly as a list of laws. Then, because of their similarity, I began adding rules to the list (after all, in physics, there is generally no difference between a law and a rule). Over time I added more and more similar subjects. Now, the list is more of a minidictionary of physics and astronomy terms, rather than strictly a list of laws, rules, and so forth; however, for historical reasons I still refer to it as the laws list, even though it is something of a misnomer.
The laws list: A
aberration to Avogadro’s hypothesis.
The laws list: B
Balmer series to Brownian motion.
The laws list: C
candela to Curie-Weiss law.
The laws list: D
Dalton’s law to Dulon-Petit law.
The laws list: E
Eddington limit to event horizon.
The laws list: F
faint, young sun paradox to Fizeau method.
The laws list: G
G to gravitational radius.
The laws list: H
h to Huygen’s construction.
The laws list: I
ideal gas constant to ideal gas laws.
The laws list: J
joule to Josephson effects.
The laws list: K
k to Kohlrausch’s law.
The laws list: L
L to Lyman series.
The laws list: M
Mach number to muon experiment.
The laws list: N
NA to null experiment.
The laws list: O
Occam’s razor to Olbers’ paradox.
The laws list: P
particle-wave duality to pseudoforce.
The laws list: Q
The laws list: R
R to Rydberg formula.
The laws list: S
Schroedinger’s cat to Système Internationale d’Unités.
The laws list: T
tachyon to twin paradox.
The laws list: U
ultraviolet catastrophe to universal constant of gravitation.
The laws list: V
van der Waals force to volt.
The laws list: W
watt to Woodward-Hoffmann rules.
The laws list: X
The laws list: Y
Young’s experiment.
The laws list: Z
Zeeman effect.
Erik Max Francis — TOP
Welcome to my homepage.
Physics — UP
Physics-related information.
The laws list: A — START
aberration to Avogadro’s hypothesis.
Quick links.
Contents of Erik Max Francis’ homepages — CONTENTS
Everything in my homepages.
Feedback — FEEDBACK
How to send feedback on these pages to the author.
About Erik Max Francis — PERSONAL

Physical theories as women

0. Newtonian gravity is your high-school girlfriend. As your first encounter with physics, she’s amazing. You will never forget Newtonian gravity, even if you’re not in touch very much anymore.

1. Electrodynamics is your college girlfriend. Pretty complex, you probably won’t date long enough to really understand her.

2. Special relativity is the girl you meet at the dorm party while you’re dating electrodynamics. You make out. It’s not really cheating because it’s not like you call her back. But you have a sneaking suspicion she knows electrodynamics and told her everything.

3. Quantum mechanics is the girl you meet at the poetry reading. Everyone thinks she’s really interesting and people you don’t know are obsessed about her. You go out. It turns out that she’s pretty complicated and has some issues. Later, after you’ve broken up, you wonder if her aura of mystery is actually just confusion.

4. General relativity is your high-school girlfriend all grown up. Man, she is amazing. You sort of regret not keeping in touch. She hates quantum mechanics for obscure reasons.

5. Quantum field theory is from overseas, but she doesn’t really have an accent. You fall deeply in love, but she treats you horribly. You are pretty sure she’s fooling around with half of your friends, but you don’t care. You know it will end badly.

6. Cosmology is the girl that doesn’t really date, but has lots of hot friends. Some people date cosmology just to hang out with her friends.

7. Analytical classical mechanics is a bit older, and knows stuff you don’t.

8. String theory is off in her own little world. She is either profound or insane. If you start dating, you never see your friends anymore. It’s just string theory, 24/7.newton apple

Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity In Words of Four Letters or Less

So, have a seat. Put your feet up. This may take some time. Can I get you some tea? Earl Grey? You got it.

Okay. How do I want to do this? He did so much. It’s hard to just dive in. You know? You pick a spot to go from, but soon you have to back up and and go over this or that item, and you get done with that only to see that you have to back up some more. So if you feel like I’m off to the side of the tale half the time, well, this is why. Just bear with me, and we’ll get to the end in good time. Okay?

Okay. Let’s see….

[ I ]

Say you woke up one day and your bed was gone. Your room, too. Gone. It’s all gone. You wake up in an inky void. Not even a star. Okay, yes, it’s a dumb idea, but just go with it. Now say you want to know if you move or not. Are you held fast in one spot? Or do you, say, list off to the left some? What I want to ask you is: Can you find out? Hell no. You can see that, sure. You don’t need me to tell you. To move, you have to move to or away from … well, from what? You’d have to say that you don’t even get to use a word like “move” when you are the only body in that void. Sure. Okay.

Now, let’s add the bed back. Your bed is with you in the void. But not for long — it goes away from you. You don’t have any way to get it back, so you just let it go. But so now we have a body in the void with you. So does the bed move, or do you move? Or both? Well, you can see as well as I that it can go any way you like. Flip a coin. Who’s to say? It’s best to just say that you move away from the bed, and that the bed goes away from you. No one can say who’s held fast and who isn’t.

Now, if I took the bed back but gave you the sun — just you and the sun in the void, now — I’ll bet you’d say that the sun is so big, next to you, that odds are you move and not the sun. It’s easy to move a body like ours, and not so easy to kick a sun to and fro. But that isn’t the way to see it. Just like with the bed, no one can say who’s held fast.

In a word, you can’t find any one true “at rest”. Izzy was the one who told us that. Izzy said that you can’t tell if you move or are at rest at any time. You can say that you go and all else is at rest, or you can say that you are at rest and all else goes. It all adds up the same both ways. So we all knew that much from way back when.

Aha, but now wait! The sun puts off rays! So: why not look at how fast the rays go past you? From that you’d see how fast you move, yes? For you see, rays move just the same if what puts them off is held fast or not. (Make a note of that, now.) Izzy had no way to know that, back then, but it’s true. Rays all move the same. We call how fast that is: c. So, you can see how fast the rays go by you, and how far off that is from c will tell you how fast you move! Hell, you don’t even need the sun for that. You can just have a lamp with you — the one by your bed that you use to read by. You can have that lamp in your hand, and see how fast the rays go by you when you turn it on. The lamp will move with you, but the rays will move at c. You will see the rays move a bit more or less than c, and that will be how fast you move. An open-and-shut case, yes?

Well, and so we went to test this idea out. Hey, you don’t need to be in a void to do this test. We move all the time, even as we sit here. We spin, in fact. So they shot some rays off and took note of how fast they went east, and how fast they went west, and so on. Well, what do you know? The rays went just as fast both ways. All ways, in fact. They all went at c, just the same. Not an iota more or less.

To say that we were less than glad to find that out is to be kind. It blew the mind, is more like it. “What is up with that?” we said. And here is when old Al came in.

[ II ]

Old Al, he came out the blue and said, “Not only do rays move at c if what puts them out is held fast or not: they move at ceven if you are held fast or not.” Now that may not look like such a big deal on the face of it, but hold on. What this says is that you can move as fast or as slow as you want, and rays will go by you at c all the time. You can have a pal run past you and when you both look at a ray go by at the same time, you will both see the same ray go by at c! That is a bit wild, no? You, back in that void, you just can not say if you move or not — with the lamp or no. Not that you can’t tell: it can’t be said. It’s moot!

But for that to be true, then time also has to get in on the act. For you and your pal to see the same ray go by at the same clip, her idea of time must be off from your idea of time!

I can hear you say, “No way. That can’t be!” But I tell you it is. Old Al said so. He said, here, I’ll show you. Get a load of this. We have Bert and Dana. Take a bus, and put Bert on the bus. The bus goes down the road. Dana, she sits here, on the side of the road. He’s in the bus and she’s on her ass. And now take a rock off of the moon, and let it fall at them. It hits the air and cuts in two. The two bits burn, and then land just as Bert and Dana are side by side. One hits the dirt up the road a ways, and one hits down the road a ways. Dana sees each rock at the same time, but Bert sees one rock and then sees the next rock. Now: if Bert and Dana both see Dana as the one who is “at rest”, they both will say that the two bits came down at the same time. Dana will say, “I am ‘at rest’, and I saw them both land at the same time, so they both did, in fact, land at the same time.” And Bert will say, “I move away from the rock down the road, so when I add that fact in, I can see that if I were ‘at rest’, I’d have seen both land at the same time. So it must be the case that they did land at the same time.” Okay, but what if Bert and Dana now see Bert as the one who is “at rest”? Eh? You get to pick who is “at rest” and who isn’t, no? So make Bert be “at rest”. Now Bert will say, “I am ‘at rest’, so the one up the road beat the one down the road, on the way to the dirt, just the way I saw it.” And Dana will say, “I saw them land at the same time, but I move away from the rock up the road, so when I add that fact in, I can see that the rock up the road must have beat the one down the road.”

So you see, when you give up on the idea of a one true “at rest”, then you have to give up on the idea of a one true time as well! And even that is not the end of it. If you lose your one true way to see time, then you also lose your one true way to see size and your one true way to see mass. You can’t talk of any of that, if you don’t also say what it is you call “at rest”. If you don’t, then Bert or Dana can pick an “at rest” that isn’t the same as what you used, and then what they will get for time and size and mass won’t be the same.

What a snag, eh? I hope you can see how that gave some of them the fits, back when old Al told us that one. But even so, that ain’t the half of it. I mean, most of us know that if old Al had got hit by a bus at age ten, we’d have got this far on our own in good time. No, it was what came next that was the real slap in the face.

[ III ]

Now, I’ve said a lot here on how to see (or how not to see) how fast you “move”. What I need to tell you now is just what I mean by that word “move”. When I say “move”, I also mean that you don’t slow down or get sped up at any time, and that you don’t veer to one side at all. When you move, you just keep all that the same as you go. How we say it is, you don’t have any “pull”. Why do I make a big deal out of that, you ask? Okay, let me tell you.

Cast your mind back to Ari, from way way back when. He’s the one who said that if you are at rest, you tend to stay at rest, and if you move, you tend to come to rest. He was off, you know, as he had no way to know that it was the air that has you come to rest. We had to wait a long time for Izzy to come by and say, “No, Ari: if you move, you tend to just go on and on. To come to rest, you need to have a pull.” The air will give you a pull, a pull that has you come to rest. Then we also have the big pull, the one that says what is down and what is up, the one that has all of us in its grip. Izzy saw that this pull was the same pull that has the moon in its grip, too. I said that a pull can be a veer, yes? That is what the pull on the moon does. The moon has to veer all the time for it to stay with us. Were it not for that pull, it’d just go off in a line — no veer — and we’d just sit here and wave bye bye. Same with us and the sun. We veer, each hour, or else we’d get real cold real fast.

But then, see, Izzy had to deal with the way that the pull acts. If a body has more mass, then it also has more pull, yes? That is why the sun is the axis we spin upon, and we are not the axis for the sun. But then why can’t it go both ways? You take your ball of lead and your ball of wood and drop them, they land at the same time. But the lead ball has more mass, so it must get more pull. Izzy said, “Well, see, a body has one more kind of pull. This pull is such that it will want to stay put all the time. And the more mass it has, the more it will want to stay put. That pull is the ‘a body at rest will tend to stay at rest’ part of the deal. So you see, that pull and the big pull are in a tug-of-war, and they work out so that any mass will fall just as fast.”

I call it a “new kind of pull”, but it isn’t so new: you feel it all the time. Get in a car and step on the gas — you feel a pull back into your seat. Let up on the gas a bit, and the pull goes away. Make a left, and you feel a pull to the side. Stop, and you feel a pull out of your seat as you slow down. Or, go to the fair and get on a ride. As you spin, you feel a pull out, away from the ride. You spin: that is to say you veer, and veer and veer and veer, just like the moon. If you had no seat belt, you’d fly off the ride, and you’d fly off in a line. (Well, that is to say, you’d fly off in a line as a bird sees it. To be fair you’d also arc down at the same time. But put that to one side.)

Okay but now, see, old Al’s big idea did not work when you look at pull. Go back to when you were lost in the void. You can’t say if you move or not, yeah, but you sure can say if you have a pull on you or not. If you did, you’d feel it, no? Sure. So then you have no one true “at rest”, no one true way to look at time, or mass, or size, but you do have one true way to look at a pull? Old Al said, “Erm. I don’t buy that.” We all said, “Aah, why not? Just give it a rest, Al.” You can see why Al did not want to give it a rest, I bet. But this one was not such an easy nut.

[ IV ]

Izzy once said, Look here: say you have a disk that can spin, and so you put a pail of milk on it and you make it spin. You will see the milk go up the side of the pail, and fly over and out onto the disk. No big deal, eh? The spin will make a pull. But now what if you said that the pail of milk is your “at rest”? Then you have you and the sky and all that in a big huge spin, and the disk with its pail of milk is the only body that is “at rest”, yes? How can you say then why the milk goes up? What can make the at-rest milk fly out of the pail like that?

This is why Izzy came to say: Yes, we have no one true “at rest”, and when you move, some may say you do move and some may say you don’t, and that is okay — but not so with a pull! A pull is a pull, damn it.

But old Al’s mind was set. And he had a big clue that that was not the full tale. I told you that Izzy put a new kind of pull next to the old kind. Well, even he felt that this new pull was a tad bit odd. Not to put it down, mind you — just that this new kind of pull was so much like the old kind of pull in a lot of ways. You know? Say I put you in a box, and then put that box out in a void. (But this time I don’t need to have you in a true void. I just want you to be well away from any pull. You can have a star or two, or as many as you like, as long as you keep them far off. Okay?) Now, say I tied a rope from the box to a ship, and then I got in that ship and sent it up, so that it went fast, and more fast, and more fast … I just burn up fuel as long as I have any left. As long as I see to it that you get sped up all the time, and at the same rate, you will feel a pull that will feel just like the pull you’d feel if you were back here, at home. If you have a ball of lead and a ball of wood in that box with you, you can drop them and they will both land at the same time. That is a bit odd, no? Puts a bug in your ear, yes? You can bet it put bugs in our ears. But no one had come up with a good way to say why that was so. Not yet.

Old Al, he took that ball and ran with it. He went off for a year, and then ten more. Yep. That long. This was no walk in the park, let me tell you. In fact, some of us said that it was more like a walk off the deep end! For you see, when old Al came back, he said, “This ‘new’ pull that Izzy gave us, it is just the old pull. Not just like it. It is it. The two are one and the same. And from this, you will then see that we have no ‘one true pull’.”

Do you see what he said, here? When you are in that box with the rope on the ship, the pull you feel won’t just act like the pull back home: it is in fact the same kind of pull! So when you say, “Hey! What if I want this box to be my ‘at rest’, huh? What then? Why does this ball fall down if I’m at rest and all?” — old Al will say back at you, “Well, you see, you have this big old void that goes by, and gets sped up all the time, and that has a pull on you and your box.” You’d say, “Get out of here! The mass in this void is too far away to give me that big of a pull!” But old Al’d say, “Nope. You don’t get it. How much mass you have in your void is moot. It’s the fact that it’s all the mass in the void. All of it but you and your box, that is.”

Same with the milk in the pail. If you say that the pail is at rest, then old Al will say that the spin of all else will pull on the milk, and make it jump out over the side.

So here is what we get when we boil it all down. Izzy said that you can’t tell if you move or are at rest at any time. You can say that you go and all else is at rest, or you can say that you are at rest and all else goes. It all adds up the same both ways. But old Al then said not only that, but that you can’t even tell if you have a pull on you or not. So, at no time, in no way, can you act so that you can’t be seen as “at rest”. You can go this way or that way or jump up or down or what have you: even so, you can say that you are at rest — and it will all add up just the same.

This was the big one for old Al. He’d like to jump for joy, it all came out just so. But the rest of us, well, we felt more like it was time to lock Al up, what he said was so wild.

[ V ]

So some of us said, “Al, you are mad. Look here: you want to make this pull, this pull that we need to keep next to the sun — you want to make this very real pull into some kind of fake pull! I mean, what kind of pull is it that can go away and come back as you pick what to call your ‘at rest’? That is no way for a pull to act.” And old Al said, “Yeah, you hit the nail on the head. It is a fake pull.” And we said, “Okay, that is it. You, Al, have lost it.” And old Al said, “Feh. Read this and weep.” And we read it, or we gave it a try, more like. It was a real mess. Some of us got it, but most of us just went, “Huh?” And some of us said that even if it was true, we’d just as soon stay with the old lie, Al’s idea was so hard to make head or tail of.

But Herb — what? No, Herb isn’t his real name, but I like to call him that — But so then Herb was one of the ones who got it, and he went in with old Al and his new idea, and what they came up with goes like this.

You know all the ways you can move, here. You have your up-and-down, and you have your east-and-west, and you have your fore-and-back. Well, Herb had said, we want to add one more way here: time. Yeah, time as just one more way to move in. Four ways, all told. And now Herb and old Al said, “Let’s take a look at what we can do when we look at here as a four-way here. Like, what if this four-way here can be bent? We don’t mean that what is in a four-way spot gets bent: what if the very spot gets bent?” Some of us said, “You two have got bent, is more like it.” But they said, “Ha. Get a load of this.”

They said, what if mass puts a bend in this four-way here of ours? The more mass you have in one spot, the more bent that spot gets. So now pick out a spot A and a spot B, one on each side of some mass, and each at its own time. What does it look like when a body goes from A to B? You will say: A line. Well, yes and no. It is a line, but it’s also bent, as it goes past the bent spot. You see, this line will only look like a line if you can see all four ways! If you can’t see one of the ways, if for you the way you can’t see is what you call time, then you will see it as a line with a big old veer in it, half way in. Now, take a lot of mass, as much as our sun has, and pick spot A and spot B to be near the mass, and to be the same spot but for the time. Well, when you do that, the line from A to B in the four-way here will be an arc to you and me! An arc that will spin on and on, with that mass as the axis!

“You see?” old Al said. “You say that the sun has a pull, but when we spin with the sun as our axis, in the bent-up four-way here we just move in a line! We don’t veer off at all! That is why I say that your pull is a fake pull. You don’t need any pull if you just want to stay on a line!”

A few more of us got it, then. But most of us just said, “What are you two on? Put down the bong and get real! This is way too wild to be true.” But they just said, “Just try and see if it isn’t true.”

So we came up with ways to test old Al’s idea, and each time Al hit the gold. His idea had the sun’s rays a tiny bit more red than what Izzy said. They were. His idea put Mars a tiny bit off from how Izzy had Mars. It was.

The big one, the one that got told over and over, was the one with the dark-at-day time. You know, when the moon gets in the way of the sun. At that time you can get a real good look at a star when it’s up next to the sun. (Next to it in the sky, that is. Not next to it for real. You know what I mean.) They went off and got a good look at a star that was very near the sun, and then they used a book to see just what spot that star was in. You see, the rays from the star pass so near the sun that they get bent, on the way to us. Old Al, his idea said just how much the rays get bent. With Izzy, the rays get bent, too, but only by half as much. So they took a look at the star, and they took at look at the big book, and … well, I’ll bet you can tell me as well as I can tell you just how far off that star was.


And then all of us, we all just sat back and said: “Whoa.”

And then we all went back to old Al and said to him, “Al, you must have some kind of head on you, to pull an idea like that out of thin air.” We said, “Why don’t you quit this dumb job you have here and come with us?” We said, “You know what, Al? We like you.”

[ end ]

And that is just the way it was. (Well, that is to say, more or less.) Oh dear me, look at the time! Sigh. I do know how to run on, don’t I? It must be well past time to turn in. Let me show you out. It was very nice to have you over, and I hope I was of help.

And y’all come back now, hear?

Note: “Herb” actually refers to Hermann Minkowski. (And “Izzy” and “Ari” are, of course, Isaac Newton and Aristotle.)

The Aircrafts and Rules of Flying

The Tiger Moth


How do you know you are a real object?

Reality: it’s not always easy to deal with. On a global scale, humanity is grappling with environmental devastation, never-ending oil wars with ever-changing enemies, mass surveillance, the destruction of civil liberties (and democracy), increased social inequality and less social mobility…I could go on. Sometimes, our collective realityseems so grim and hopeless it’s a wonder anyone has any energy to fight the system at all. But what if by focusing our energy on all the negatives, we are attracting- or even creating- this dark, dystopian future?

This video summarizes one of the most important discoveries in quantum physics (and arguably one of the most important in the history of humanity): that everything we think we are experiencing is actually little more than a dream. Reality is not fixed or static at all. In fact, only the act of observation creates matter. A table, for example, is not solid until you turn and look at it. Before that, it’s a wave- it is in all places (and nowhere) simultaneously. The Universe really is non-physical, as mystics have claimed for millenia. You might not even exist!

If this is all new to you, don’t take my word for it. This compilation of movie mash-ups and interview clips features top scientists Fred Alan Wolf, Nassim Haramein, Amit Goswami, Jim Al Khalili and Greg Braden to explain all this craziness. Additional scenes from The Matrix and What The Bleep Do We Know will leave you wondering why you bothered to worry about reality at all. Because science tells us that if we focus on love, that’s what we will experience.

“The mind is the matrix of all matter.” This is a great mantra to repeat every morn

Read More: WORLD

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