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WISE MAKES HIS OWN DECISION – OTHERS FOLLOW PUBLIC OPINION

32 great educational website for teachers

Here is a handy infographic we have been working on for the last couple of days.  We compiled 32 educational websites based on the Ultimate EdTech Chart we published a few months ago. We arranged these websites into 8 different categories and for each of these categories we came up with four websites that best represent the selected content area. The categories we have included are : websites for language arts teachers, websites for math teachers, websites for science teachers, websites for physics teachers, websites for history teachers,  websites for social studies teachers, websites for arts teachers, and websites for music teachers.  You can find links to the websites in this chart. Enjoy

This visual is available for free download in PDF format.
32 Great Educational Websites for Teachers

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Check out Bollywood Soothing Singles (Retro) Radio

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Srikrisna & his 16 kala

*🕉16 कलाओं से पूर्ण श्रीकृष्ण🕉*

****************************
*श्रृंगार कला –* भगवान श्रीकृष्ण को श्रृंगार की बारिकियों का इतना ज्यादा ज्ञान था कि उसके श्रृंगार रूप को देखकर गोकुल की कन्याएं (गोपिया) उनके मनमोहक रूप को निहारती रहती थी। उनके गले में दुपट्टा, कमर पर तगड़ी, पीताम्बर अंग वस्त्र, सिर पर छोटा मुकुट तथा उसपर मोर पंख श्री की सुन्दरता में चार चांद लगाता था
*वादन कला –* भगवान को वादन के सभी स्वरों का पूर्ण ज्ञान था, जिसके परिणास्वरूप वे अपनी बांसूरी से बड़े बड़ों को अपने अनुचर बना लेते थे।
*नृत्य कला –* श्रीकृष्ण को नृत्य का पूर्ण ज्ञान था, इसी लिए गोकुल की देवियां उनके नृत्य की प्रशंसा करते-करते श्रीकृष्ण का नृत्य देखने की हठ करती थी।
*गायन कला –* श्रीकृष्ण एक अच्छे गायक भी थे। वेद के मंत्रों का गायन कर उन्होंने अर्जुन को मोहपाश के मुक्त कर दिया था।
*वाकमाधूर्य कला –* श्रीकृष्ण की वाणी में विलक्षण मधुरता व्याप्त थी। वे जिस किसी से भी वार्ता करते थे, वह हमेशा के लिए उनका हो जाता था।
*वाकचातुर्य कला –* उनकी वाणी में चतुरता भी थी। वे बडे़ सहज भाव से अपनी बात को मनवा लेते थे और सामने वाले को अपना विरोद्घि भी नही बनने देते थे। महाभारत में ऐसे अनेक प्रकरण सामने आए हैं।
*वक्तृत्व कला –* भगवान एक महान वक्ता थे। बड़े-बड़े धूरंधरों को उन्होंने अपने प्रभावशाली वक्तव्यों से धराशाही कर उनको उनके ही बनाए जाल में फांस लिया था। कालयवन उसका एक अच्छा उदाहरण है।
*लेखन कला –* श्रीकृष्ण ने मात्र एक घंटे के सुक्ष्मकाल में गीता की रचना कर एक ऐतिहासिक कार्य किया है। उनका मुकाबला आज तक या इससे पहले कोई नही कर सका। अतः भगवान एक उत्तम कोटी के लेखक भी थे।
*वास्तुकला –* भगवान श्रीकृष्ण को वास्तुकला का भी अकाटय ज्ञान था। पांडवों के लिए इन्द्रप्रस्थ और स्वयं अपने लिए राजधानी द्वारका का निर्माण वास्तुकला के बेजोड़ नमूने थे।
*पाककला –* भगवान श्रीकृष्ण पाक शास्त्र के भी महान पंडित थे। सम्राट युधिष्ठर के राजसूय यज्ञ के दौरान खाने-पीने का पूरा सामान उनकी देख-रेख में ही तैयार किया गया था।
*नेतृत्व कला –* कृष्ण में नेतृत्व करने की क्षमता बेजोड थी। वे जहां भी गए नेतृत्व उनके पीछे-पीछे हो जाता था। सभी युद्घों से लेकर आम सभाओं में हमेशा सभी ने उन्हीं के नेतृत्व को स्वीकार किया था।
*युद्घ कला –* श्रीकृष्ण की अधिकतर आयु युद्घों में ही व्यतीत हुई थी परन्तु हमेशा उन्होंने सभी में विजय प्राप्त की। वे युद्घ की सभी विधाओं का सम्पूर्ण ज्ञान रखते थे।
*शस्त्रास्‍त्र कला –* योगेश्वर श्रीकृष्ण को युद्घ में प्रयोग होने वाले सभी व्यूहों की रचना, उन्हें भंग करने की कला तथा आग्नेयास्त्र, वरूणास्त्र तथा ब्रह्मास्त्र सहित सभी अस्त्र शस्त्रों का पूर्ण ज्ञान प्राप्त था।
*अध्यापन कला –* भगवान श्रीकृष्ण एक सफल अध्यापक भी थे। युद्घ क्षेत्र में जिस प्रकार उन्होंने अर्जुन को निष्कामकर्म योग, सांख्य योग, विभूति योग, भक्ति योग, मोक्ष सन्यास योग तथा विश्वरूप दर्शन योग का पाठ पढाया, वह हमेशा अनुक्रणीय रहेगा।
*वैद्यक कला –* श्रीकृष्ण आयूर्वेद के भी सम्पूर्ण ज्ञाता थे। कंस की फूल चुनने वाली दासी कुबड़ी के शरीर को सीधा करना तथा महाभारत युद्घ में अश्वथामा के प्रहार से मृतप्रायः हुए परीक्षित को जीवन दान देना इसके अकाट्य उदाहरण है।
*पूर्वबोध कला –* भगवान ने तप से अपनी आत्मा को इतना पवित्र और उर्द्घव गति को प्राप्त करवा लिया था कि उन्हें किसी भी घटना का पहले से ही अनुमान हो जाता था।

Top 10 cases of stolen science

We learn about so many scientists in school because they provided invaluable discoveries and solutions to everything from terrible diseases to inconvenient technology. However, there is often more to the story than what you see in news articles or Nobel Prize acceptance speeches.

Science is often fueled by competition and a race to be the first or the best. It takes a team to discover big scientific advances, and everyone wants his name in the author section. There are more cases than one would probably expect where those big science names we all know were almost replaced by someone else. Here are a few that you may find interesting.

10Double Helix

The discovery of the shape of DNA proved to be one of the most famous and important discoveries in scientific history. It allowed scientists to truly understand how DNA works and how it binds together, which has preceded countless breakthroughs in biology.

The scientists who “discovered” the double helical shape won a Nobel Prize for their priceless work. The prize went to James Watson, Francis Crick, and the lesser-known Maurice Wilkins in 1962. It was undoubtedly a collaborative effort. But the main player, Rosalind Franklin, was the only one without her name up in lights.

Just one of the many cases of women being excluded from science, the Nobel Prize was given to the trio four years after Rosalind’s premature death due to ovarian cancer.[1] Perhaps had she been alive, she could have fought for her rightful place.

Although Rosalind Franklin worked in the same lab as Maurice Wilkins, they were involved in different projects, both dealing with DNA. The lab was the first to use X-ray imaging to view DNA. In these images, the structure become clearer than it had ever been.

At that time, women did not have full access to labs. Rosalind and Maurice were said to have a feud, and although they were equals, Wilkins treated Franklin as though she were an assistant. Due to her time-consuming setbacks, the word of using X-ray crystallography had spread. So she was beaten to publication by Watson, Crick, and Wilkins, who had excluded her from the list of authors.

9Evolution

Charles Darwin is the father of evolution and was the world’s most talented naturalist. He studied biology at a time when there was no Google, no portable cameras, and not even a tiny computer you could carry around in your pocket.

When Darwin set out on the HMS Beagle, the voyage that allowed him to foster the idea of evolution, he drew thousands of images of previously unknown species by hand and sent them back to Oxford to be studied further. Once he returned home to the life where he had not followed in his father’s holy footsteps and had flunked out of medical school, Darwin had a new idea. He continued to tinker with the idea of evolution for almost 10 years after he arrived home.

Darwin worked mainly with beetles and was writing On the Origin of Species. The book was published in November 1859, roughly 10 years after it had been completed.

During this time, he had shared his thoughts and drawings with a young man named Alfred Russel Wallace.[2] Wallace was young enough to be Darwin’s son and was fascinated with naturalism. After hearing about Darwin’s theories, he came to the same conclusion as Darwin—that of evolution. Wallace began to write about it himself with the intent to publish.

Meanwhile, Darwin had held back publication for two overlapping reasons. The first was to protect his wife and daughter, and the second was due to the religious community surrounding him. He feared that an atheistic view of how man came to be would be met with anger and violence. While he was not totally wrong, the threat of his friend and confidant publishing the idea of evolution forced Darwin to finally publish the now-famous book.

8The Telescope

Photo credit: Michael Dunn

Most of us link the first studies of stars and astronomy to Galileo Galilei even though he was not the inventor of the telescope. The first telescope was created by a man named Hans Lippershey in 1608.

Lenses and spyglasses had been invented many years earlier, but Lippershey was the first to try to patent the creation.[3] Although many people credit him solely with the invention, he was ultimately denied the patent and official credit was given to three men: Lippershey, Zacharias Jansen, and Jacob Metius. The telescope they made could only magnify by a factor of three, an utter failure in light of today’s technology.

Galileo learned about the simple telescope, which used one concave and one convex lens to make objects appear larger and closer, about one year after its invention. He improved upon it in one night. After he had perfected his new telescope over the following days, he presented the idea to the Senate, leading many to believe that Galileo had invented the telescope himself.

7Television

Photo credit: Fletcher6

Television may not seem like a “scientific” discovery, but every invention uses science in some way. The technical aspects of TV are highly scientific even though television is not a tool used to advance science in general.

Credit for the invention of a picture television has been debated for a long time. It is difficult to settle because there were many contributors. Although there were a few precursors and preliminary inventions pertaining to sending an image and sound wirelessly, the modern TV boils down to two people, both working to create it at the same time: US-born Philo Taylor Farnsworth and Russian-born Vladimir Kosma Zworykin. Ultimately, Farnsworth received royalties on TV sales even though Zworykin was the first to obtain a patent for the invention.

Zworykin earned a patent for the iconoscope, an electron scanning tube that was used to project an image.[4] A short time later, Farnsworth was able to display transmitted television signals using a slightly altered design of the original electron scanning tube.

These differences were debated for years and ultimately ended up in court. Although Zworykin invented the original idea, it was not fully functional until it was fine-tuned by Farnsworth. The case was settled when Farnsworth’s science teacher was subpoenaed to appear in court and testified that Farnsworth had told the teacher of his ideas for the electron scanning tube at the young age of 14.

6AIDS

When acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) had its first major outbreak, there was widespread panic as nobody knew what caused the horrible illness. For all people knew, it could be airborne.

Scientists started to carefully study the virus, which was increasingly difficult as different strains became prevalent. The finish line moved every time there was the slightest breakthrough. This caused tremendous controversy in the science world over who was responsible for which discovery and just how big of a difference that discovery would make in the face of an ever-changing disease.

In 1983, Paris-based Luc Montagnier found a virus believed to be responsible for AIDS called lymphadenopathy retrovirus (LAV). However, when Montagnier sent his virus to be studied further, he accidentally sent a different, more powerful strain called LAI.

Around this time, a man named Robert Gallo discovered a virus that he believed to be responsible: IIIB. Montagnier and his partner, Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, eventually won a Nobel Prize for their findings even though Gallo’s virus had been virtually identical to LAI. This soured the former collaboration as Gallo felt he deserved recognition for his work all the same.[5]

5Atom Bomb

As we know, there is always plenty of controversy when it comes to races between countries for any type of “first.” During times of war, the competition can get particularly nasty, as was the case with the initial invention of the atom bomb.

During World War II, the Soviet Union put massive efforts into getting their spies to uncover the secrets of the developing atom bomb in the US and Britain. The research began in Britain in 1941, and the Soviets got away with espionage for years without being detected. As they made their own A-bomb just four years later in record time, it was clear that they had some “borrowed” information.

The Soviets were able to buy top secret information from British and US spies. There are a few theories as to why this could have happened, ranging from secret hopes of communism to thoughts of peace.

It is thought that some spies were trying to stop the use of atom bombs because they believed there would be less destruction if both countries had equal power and technology. Knowing that their opponents had the power to bomb them back gave pause to some leaders.

The codes sent back and forth often became compromised due to the Venona project, a US program to decode messages that ultimately led to the arrest and death of several spies.[6]

4Light Bulb

Thomas Edison had a few competitors in his effort to invent the light bulb. The most notable was Joseph Swan. The pair kept up with each other’s accomplishments in a conscious race for victory.

Swan began experimenting with bulbs before Edison, but the technology was not yet up to par. Vacuum pumps were needed to suck air out of the bulbs. It was not until 10 years after Swan started experimenting that the pumps became strong enough. Swan debuted his preliminary light bulb in February 1879, eight months before Edison introduced his own.[7]

Although Swan did invent a working bulb first, Edison improved upon the idea and made the item usable in everyday life. The two bulbs were similar in that they both looked somewhat like a present-day bulb and used platinum wires and carbon to create light.

However, Swan’s light bulb needed a very strong electrical current that caused the bulb to become hot and glow, which was not sustainable. The bulbs had a ridiculously short life span, which was not practical for daily use. They also emitted heavy soot that would quickly coat the inside of the bulbs and render them useless.

Edison used a thinner filament with a very high electrical resistance. This fixed the problem and earned him credit for the invention.

3Telephone

Photo credit: Early Office Museum

Although Alexander Graham Bell is credited with creating the telephone, that just means that his name is on the patent. He was preceded by Elisha Gray and Antonio Meucci, who created the talking telegraph.

Meucci was an Italian immigrant who was credited with the invention of the telegraph several years prior to Bell’s invention. The telegraph was recognized by the US House of Representatives in 2002 to pay tribute to Meucci’s creations. He was not as lucky to be recognized during his lifetime.

More interesting is the case of Elisha Gray. He and Bell sent lawyers to the patent office to earn the title of inventor of the telephone on the same day—February 14, 1876. Gray, a college professor, did not get the patent simply because Bell’s lawyer got there first. The story goes that Bell’s lawyer was fifth in line at the patent office while Elisha Gray’s was 39th.

However, some say that this was an oversight and incorrectly handled by public officials. Prior to this date, Gray had announced an official declaration of an invention, a caveat which should have been honored at the patent office and granted him first rights.[8]

2Sex-Determining Chromosomes

Nettie Stevens made a huge leap in science when she proved that sex is not determined by environmental factors. Through her work on mealworms and small marine bacteria, she discovered specialized sex chromosomes that trigger the hormonal growth that determines gender, which is common among many species.

Stevens was an extremely accomplished scholar, having graduated from college at a time when women in science were extremely rare. She also earned a master’s degree in biology. Then she went on to study abroad in Germany and earn her PhD in 1903.

The main problem with her loss of credit was her supervisors. Many people did not take her seriously simply because she was a woman. They ignored her findings and her ideas.

While she was earning her doctorate, she had three male supervisors overseeing her work: Thomas Hunt Morgan, Edmund Wilson, and M. Carey Thomas.[9] She published her work as a grad student and died a premature death from breast cancer in 1912. Due to her early death, she never earned the title of professor, meaning that her male supervisors got most of the credit for her research.

1Stardust

Photo credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin is one of the most famous astronomers in history. She successfully determined the composition of actual stardust in her 1925 PhD thesis. This story is another sad story of a woman being denied credit for no proper reason.

As part of her thesis, Payne-Gaposchkin concluded that stars are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. But this idea was opposed by a scientist named Henry Norris Russell, who believed that stars were made from the same materials as Earth. Payne-Gaposchkin was, of course, eventually proved correct.

As Harvard did not grant doctoral degrees to women at that time, she was given the first PhD in astronomy from Radcliffe College. Her colleagues described her work as “the most brilliant PhD thesis ever written in astronomy.”[10]

Payne-Gaposchkin was not awarded the title of professor until 1956 when Harvard became more welcoming to women. Her credited works were published posthumously, while the ones released during her lifetime appeared with the main author under a man’s name. Even as a full-fledged professor who taught regular classes, Harvard did not publish her work in their catalogs. Payne-Gaposchkin now has the rightful credit for her discoveries.

Top 10 regime change by USA

10The Syrian Coup D’etat

Photo credit: Wikimedia

The extent of US involvement in the bloodless coup which overthrew the secular democracy that had sprung up in Syria after World War II has been disputed ever since. The popular opinion is that in 1949, the CIA decided their best bet to further US interests in the area would be to “encourage” a coup d’etat in the country.[1] A proposed construction project, the Trans-Arabian Pipeline, was in danger of not being built under the rule of Shukri-al-Quwatli, and if there’s one thing that gets America’s goat, it’s being denied oil.

Therefore, a shyster named Husni al-Za’im (pictured above), convicted less than a decade earlier for graft, was propped up by the CIA, and he led an overthrow of Syria’s democratically elected president. Almost immediately, the pipeline plans were approved, as were a number of pro-American initiatives, such as peaceful negotiations with Israel. (The First Arab-Israeli War had just ended the year before.) However, just four months after he assumed power, al-Za’im himself was deposed, shot by a strongman who managed to rule for about five years before he was deposed as well. Nearly two decades of coup after coup ensured, until Hafez al-Assad took power and reigned for 30 years before his death.

9Operation PBSUCCESS

Like a number of others, the US-orchestrated regime change which took place in Guatemala in 1954 happened because Communism was supposedly gaining a foothold in the country. The second democratically elected president of the country, Jacobo Arbenz, instituted a number of land reforms, populist actions meant to improve the lives of the poorest Guatemalans. The CIA didn’t feel the same way and almost immediately put a target on his back. “Target” can be interpreted both figuratively and literally; assassination was an option up until Arbenz resigned. In addition, United Fruit, a US company which held quite a bit of land in Guatemala, suffered under the reforms, mostly due to the ending of their exploitative labor practices, and they lobbied the US government to intervene.

Operation PBSUCCESS, a plan for “psychological warfare and political action,” was authorized by President Eisenhower in 1953.[2] In addition, the CIA trained and funded a paramilitary group led by Castillo Armas, which attempted to violently overthrow Arbenz, though they met with a number of setbacks. The threat of US intervention, thanks to the propaganda which was part of Operation PBSUCCESS, was enough to force Arbenz’s resignation. Ten days later, Armas took power, instituting four decades of authoritarian rule which decimated Guatemala’s Maya population, thanks to near-continuous and bloody civil war. The coup was widely reviled by the international community, with some comparing the Americans to “colonialists” or “Hitler speaking about Austria.”

8Operation Urgent Fury

Grenada is a small island in the Caribbean, only 640 kilometers (400 mi) south of Puerto Rico, and as the locals say: It’s “just south of paradise, just north of frustration.”[3] For President Reagan, it was a constant frustration, with Marxists having controlled the country since the onset of his presidency. In 1983, fed up with what they deemed insufficiently radicalized behavior, members of the ruling party executed their leader, replacing him with Hudson Austin, a general in the People’s Revolutionary Army. This was the straw that broke the camel’s back for the Americans, and plans were quickly drawn up to invade the island.

Troubles started immediately, creating problems which would last for much of Operation Urgent Fury, as the various branches of the military couldn’t agree on what to do. In the end, over 7,000 troops were landed in Grenada, with a number of different goals to achieve, chief among them being the removal of the current regime. (The rescue of American students in the country was used as an excuse for the invasion.) Faced against the might of the US military, Austin’s government quickly folded and was replaced by pro-US leadership. When asked about the nearly unanimous international outrage concerning the invasion, Reagan simply replied, “It didn’t upset my breakfast at all.”

7The Iraq War

The invasion which introduced the world to the idea of “regime change,” the Iraq War began in 2003 under the auspices of removing Saddam Hussein from power, as he was alleged to possess a number of weapons of mass destruction.[4] In reality, he had none and was increasingly cooperating with UN inspectors. However, President Bush argued against those claims, eventually giving Hussein an ultimatum: Leave the country or face an invasion.

Despite fervent international protests, the United States and the rest of the coalition forces began hostilities when the deadline came and went. Although the conventional warfare was quickly over, as the Iraqis were no match for their foes, insurgents continued to be a thorn in the side of an increasingly isolated American presence for many years afterward. Though the eventual outcome of the US intervention has yet to be determined, deeming the action a success is seemingly impossible, given the nearly 200,000 civilian deaths that resulted from the conflict.

6The First Caco War

Photo credit: East Oregonian

By 1915, after four years of constant political turmoil, the US government saw the island nation of Haiti as a problem which could only be solved by force. Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, a ruthless dictator best known for his political executions, was ousted that year by the same forces which had been behind the last six coups: Haitian peasant militias known as cacos. Faced with an increasingly smaller chance of recovering the debts owed to them, France, England, Germany, and the US sent troops to the area.[5]

However, it was the American forces who landed first, initially meeting with little resistance. A populist notion had helped instigate the latest coup, and the cacos were reluctant to give up as they had in the past. A brief guerilla war, the First Caco War, began and lasted for a few months, until US Marines stormed Fort Riviere, the final stronghold of the cacos. A pro-America politician named Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave assumed control of the country and remained in power until 1922. US forces remained in Haiti until 1934, when President Roosevelt transferred authority to the Garde d’Haiti.

5Operation Just Cause

Photo credit: Specialist Morland

In 1989, Manuel Noriega, the infamous dictator of Panama, had been ruling for about six years, trafficking cocaine and helping the CIA with their various covert military operations throughout Latin America. By 1986, he had outlived his usefulness, and there were reports that he was a double agent. A US court convicted him on drug charges a few years later.[6] (Much of his involvement with the CIA came out as a result of various scandals, including the Iran-Contra Affair.)

The 1989 elections resulted in a win by Guillermo Endara, the head of the anti-Noriega Democratic Alliance of Civic Opposition. Angered by the fact that his handpicked winner was defeated, Noriega declared the elections void, asserting himself as the de facto ruler of the country. Public pressure mounted on the US government in the form of various claims of softness on drug crime and the apparent escalation of threats against Americans living in the country. So, on December 20, US troops landed in a number of different spots with the intent of taking several strategically important sites. Noriega was eventually captured at the Vatican mission in Panama City, after he surrendered due to a combination diplomatic pressure from the Vatican and constant rock music (which Noriega hated). Endara was later sworn into office.

4The Huerta Toppling

Photo credit: US Government

The year was 1913. Three years of bloody conflict had resulted in a number of overthrown Mexican presidents, and after a particularly violent series of days known as the Ten Tragic Days, General Victoriano Huerta was installed as president. However, the US, under President Wilson, was initially reluctant to recognize the newly minted dictator, instead hoping for democratic elections.[7]

A year later, nine American sailors were arrested for allegedly entering a prohibited area in Mexican territory, setting off what would be known as the Tampico Affair. They were then paraded around the city, enraging the regional US naval commander. Ultimatums were issued, and when Mexico refused, President Wilson sent Marines to the port city of Veracruz. A relatively short battle ensued. The US forces took control of the city, only relinquishing it when Huerta resigned from office.

Later, Huerta was contacted by German intelligence, who planned to use him to get the US bogged down in a war with Mexico. As he was heading back to Mexico from his then-home of New York, he was captured by US forces, who promptly charged him with sedition. He later died while in custody.

3The Puerto Rican Campaign

Photo credit: Strohmeyer & Wyman

During the Spanish-American War, a number of Spanish holdings in the Western Hemisphere were the site of conflict between the two countries, including the small Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Less than a month after the onset of the war, US naval forces attacked San Juan, establishing a blockade. Eventually, land forces were deployed, and after only seven deaths, the US secured the island.[8] The war ended soon after, and Spain ceded a number of territories, including Cuba, the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.

Though US control of Cuba was temporary from the onset, the other three territories were initially going to be permanent. Almost immediately, Puerto Rico came under the “leadership” of various military officers, who set about to Americanize the population, mostly through the use of schools and mandatory lessons in English. It would be another 54 years until the citizens of Puerto Rico were allowed to democratically elect their own leader, though they remain a territory of the United States.

2The TPAJAX Project

Photo credit: Wikimedia

In the early 1950s, Mohammad Mossaddegh was the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, and in an effort to gain more national control over their oil fields, he began to audit the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), a British business. American fears were, as with many other similar examples, that the country would fall under the sway of the Soviet Union. Desperate to keep Communism from taking hold in Iran, the CIA began planning to overthrow Mossaddegh, hoping to reaffirm Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s power as monarch and install General Fazlollah Zahedi as the new leader of the country.[9]

A joint task force of British and American intelligence began funneling money to various groups within Iran, who undertook terror plots designed to undermine public confidence in Mossaddegh’s government. (The AIOC itself contributed money for bribing officials as well.) A 1953 coup was successful, with as many as 300 people dying during the conflict and many more imprisoned or killed as a result of the shah’s military court tribunals. Pahlavi reigned for another 26 years, before anti-American sentiment, fueled in no small part by constant US involvement in Middle Eastern politics, resulted in the Iranian Revolution in 1979.

1The Deposing Of Queen Liliuokalani

Photo credit: James J. Williams

The first, last, and only reigning Hawaiian queen, Liliuokalani assumed the throne in 1891, after her brother’s death. Faced with declining royal authority, she sought to reaffirm the monarchy’s role in Hawaiian politics. In addition, she sought to lower the influence of foreign-born businessmen and landowners, many of whom were American. When they got wind of her plans, the wealthy elite conspired with the US military to depose her, and she was arrested in 1893.

Led by Sanford Dole (yes, of the Dole Food Company), the Missionary Party assumed control of the country, establishing a provincial government with the stated goal of getting the islands annexed by the US.[10] Though the efforts were initially resisted by President Cleveland, who even unsuccessfully ordered Liliuokalani restored to the throne, Hawaii was eventually annexed in 1898. Liliuokalani went on to compose “Aloha Oe,” a song beloved ever since.

TEN NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF FACEBOOK

Ever since the Edward Snowden incident, people are suspicious of major online companies such as Facebook and Google. We know they are collecting lots of data. Only Facebook knows how much data they collect on their users, but estimates peg the number at about 500 terabytes per day.[1] A terabyte is 1,024 gigabytes. The average 720p movie is about one gigabyte. That means Facebook is collecting the equivalent of 510,000 movies every day.

The sheer scale of data mining is impressive, but what they can do with this data is more impressive, or creepy, depending where you sit on the megalomaniac scale. Facebook is a part of everyday life. Is that a good thing? Here are ten disturbing facts about Facebook to help you decide.

10Facial Recognition

When a friend tags in a photo on Facebook, this information is added to Facebook’s giant stack of data. The social network has AI bots that sift through all this data to do pattern matching with your face.[2]

Facebook’s algorithm is so good that they claim to have an accuracy of 98 percent. With every newly uploaded photo, they get better at pattern matching faces. The question now becomes how long we have until Facebook sells this information to retailers. Remember that scene in Minority Report when Tom Cruise is in a shop that changes what is on the mannequin based on what they know about him?

9Facebook Knows Where You Are At All Times

If you have the Facebook Messenger app, the chances are that you didn’t tell it to stop sharing your location. It’s not a bad thing if you want Facebook to know where you are. But what about other people? What if a stalker wanted to track you down and follow you? Could they also use Facebook Messenger?

One programmer investigated and created a simple Chrome plugin called Marauder’s Map. The name refers to a map Harry Potter had in Hogwarts that allowed him to see where everyone was in the castle. Marauder’s Map was capable of giving the exact coordinates of friends who used Messenger.[3]

By looking at a simple map, the programmer was able to identify exactly where his friends were. In response, Facebook disabled location sharing from the Messenger app. However, that doesn’t mean they aren’t collecting that data.

8Using Facebook Makes You Feel Worse

The more you use Facebook, the worse you will feel. Heavy use of social media has been shown to cause a host of different problems, including decreased face-to-face relationships, increased sedentary behavior, and erosion of self-esteem through unfavorable social comparison. Studies carried out by Yale showed that the use of Facebook had a substantial impact on mental health. The activity of liking other’s content and clicking links predicted a self-reported decrease in physical health, mental health, and life satisfaction.

When it comes to Facebook, people carefully tailor what is presented to show the highlights of their life and omit the downsides. Others who are browsing someone’s profile feel worse when they are comparing themselves to that person’s highlights.[4]

7Facebook Creates An Echo Chamber For Your Views

After the election of Donald Trump and the recent Brexit crisis, people were quick to turn the blame toward Facebook and Google for curating “fake news” articles. The evidence was so strong that even the CEO of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg, had to make a promise to filter out fake news sites and warn users not to be swayed by different websites.

The mainstream media focused on “fake news” (probably because it was competing with them) but failed to mention the other problem people faced with Facebook: what is referred to as the “filter bubble.”[5]

Facebook’s main aim is to to get you to spend lots of time on their platform. If you read the above entry, you might now think this is bad for your health. It’s also bad for your intellect. Facebook gets you to stay around by curating what they think you will like to see. The problem with this is that, for example, if you are a left-wing political supporter, you will never see content showing the positive aspects of right-wing politics, and the same principle holds if you’re right-wing. This filter bubble also makes it seem that the political party you support is more popular than they are, even if they’re not.

Despite the mission of bringing people together, this aspect of Facebook may be driving them apart.

6Facebook Negatively Influences People With Eating Disorders

A small study with 84 college women at Florida State University found that those who use Facebook more often were more likely to report disordered eating. Another study from the American University in Washington, DC, found that girls who scan Facebook photos are more likely to indicate body dissatisfaction.

Once again, we come back to how Facebook makes us compare ourselves to others. If it can have an effect on people who aren’t currently suffering from any mental illness, the effect may be more pronounced on people already facing severe psychological issues like eating disorders.[6]

5Facebook Makes Lonely People Feel Even More Lonely

New York University clinical psychiatrist Dr. Sudeepta Varma stated that Facebook keeps people in the know about what others are doing—but it also reminds them of what they themselves aren’t doing, which can make them feel left out. That was the conclusion from the study of 82 young adults who were active Facebook users.[7]

The most shocking thing about this study is that it happened over two short weeks. After only two weeks of use, Facebook led to a steep decline in subjective happiness.

4Facebook Knows More About You Than You Think

Facebook’s News Feed is designed to keep you engaged as long as possible. During that time, Facebook builds an ever-evolving and complex mesh of data on their users. They create a profile using predictive analysis, which allows them to find out how susceptible you are to advertising, which way you lean politically, and whether you are more likely to pay with cash or a credit card.[8]

They even guess how intelligent you are, based on what content you like. If you want to get a small snapshot into the kind of data Facebook collects, then I highly recommend the Chrome plugin Data Selfie.

3Facebook Engages In Political Censorship

Despite Facebook’s mission to have a society that is free and open, they have acted opposite to this goal by engaging in political censorship at a state level. There have been many examples of this, such as their blocking a page announcing a protest in Russia, an action that was a direct order from the Russian government.

Another example is in China, where Facebook developed special software to censor users’ posts.[9] They even went as far as censoring satire because a UK government agency complained. Facebook also censored two men kissing.

2Facebook Will Happily Sell Your Data

Just when you think it can’t get worse than political censorship, you find out that anyone and everyone can get access to your data. Mastercard recently purchased Facebook data that details users’ online habits to uncover behavioral insights it can sell to banks. The intention is to merge Facebook’s data with their own so that they can also drive online sales.

Okay, Mastercard is a big company with lots cash. “Surely it wasn’t cheap,” you say. Well, one man spent $5 to acquire a total of one million Facebook users’ personal information.[10] Facebook’s response was quite scary. They requested that the man send them the file, delete it from his computer, and “keep quiet.”

1Facebook Knows When You Are Sleeping

Through the Facebook Messenger app, users can see when someone was last active. Intrigued, a developer by the name of Soren Louv-Jansen started to look into this a bit more. By correlating user IDs with a time stamp, he was actually able to build a graph of all his friends’ sleeping patterns.[11]

One hacker went even further and discovered that you could find out what device people were last active on. What an excellent way to freak out your friends. Just don’t use any of this information to open up to a girl you’ve had a crush on for a long time. It will make things weird. Fast.

William is a self-taught software developer who went from a job he hates to a job he now loves. As well as writing about himself in the 3rd person, William loves to write essays, code and writing about becoming a web developer on his blog.

 

Read more about the dark side of social media and technology on 10 Ways Organizations Manipulated Social Media For Political Agendas and 10 Ways Technology Is Changing You For The Worse.

Top 10 important person of ancient Greece

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Ancient Greece has had an enormous amount of impact on culture in the Western world. Some of the first works of literature in the west, of which we have record, come from Greece, and although they were created at a time after older works from Mesopotamia, such epic poems as the Iliad and Odyssey have exerted wide influence over generation after generation of western thinkers. Greeks have made huge contributions to the world in various aspects, however this is most noticeable in literature, architecture, Olympic games, science, mathematics and politics. Here is a list of some of the most influential and memorable ancient Greeks.

15
Hippocrates of Cos

Hippocrates Kerylos

Hippocrates of Cos was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Athens), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of Western medicine in recognition of…

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Top 10 important person of ancient Greece

Ancient Greece has had an enormous amount of impact on culture in the Western world. Some of the first works of literature in the west, of which we have record, come from Greece, and although they were created at a time after older works from Mesopotamia, such epic poems as the Iliad and Odyssey have exerted wide influence over generation after generation of western thinkers. Greeks have made huge contributions to the world in various aspects, however this is most noticeable in literature, architecture, Olympic games, science, mathematics and politics. Here is a list of some of the most influential and memorable ancient Greeks.

15

Hippocrates of Cos

Hippocrates Kerylos

Hippocrates of Cos was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Athens), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of Western medicine in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.

14

Thales of Miletus

Thales

Thales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus, in Asia Minor, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Aristotle, regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition. According to Bertrand Russell, “Western philosophy begins with Thales.” Thales attempted to explain natural phenomena without reference to mythology, and was tremendously influential in this respect.

In mathematics, Thales used geometry to solve problems, such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales’ Theorem. As a result, he has been hailed as the first true mathematician, and is the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed. Also, Thales was the first person known to have studied electricity.

13

Phidias

220Px-Nama Ath%C3%A9Na Varvakeion

Phidias, or the great Pheidias, was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect, who lived in the 5th century BC, and is commonly regarded as one of the greatest of all sculptors of Classical Greece. Phidias’ Statue of Zeus, at Olympia, was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Phidias also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenos, inside the Parthenon and the Athena Promachos, a colossal bronze statue of Athena which stood between it and the Propylaea, a monumental gateway that served as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens.

Prior to the Peloponnesian war, Phidias was accused of embezzling gold intended for the statue of Athena inside the Parthenon. Pericles’ enemies found a false witness against Phidias, named Menon. Phidias died in prison, although Pericles’ companion, Aspasia, was acquitted of her own charges.

12

Solon

Solon

“In making their own evaluation of Solon, the ancient sources concentrated on what were perceived to be the democratic features of the constitution. But…Solon was given his extraordinary commission by the nobles, who wanted him to eliminate the threat that the position of the nobles as a whole would be overthrown.” — Stanton, G.R. Athenian Politics c800-500BC: A Sourcebook, Routledge, London (1990), p. 76.

Solon was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic and moral decline in archaic Athens. His reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy.

11

Democritus

Democritus-3

Democritus was an Ancient Greek philosopher, born in Abdera, Thrace, Greece. He was an influential pre-Socratic philosopher and pupil of Leucippus, who formulated an atomic theory for the cosmos. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from his mentor Leucippus, as they are often mentioned together in texts. Their speculation on atoms, taken from Leucippus, bears a passing and partial resemblance to the 19th century understanding of atomic structure that has led some to regard Democritus as more of a scientist than other Greek philosophers; however, their ideas rested on very different bases. Largely ignored in ancient Athens, Democritus was, nevertheless, well-known to his fellow northern-born philosopher Aristotle. Plato is said to have disliked him so much that he wished all his books burned. Many consider Democritus to be the “father of modern science.”

10

Herodotus

Herodotus Agora Mus1

Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria, and lived in the 5th century BC (c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC). He has been called the “Father of History,” and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent, and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid narrative. The Histories — his masterpiece and the only work he is known to have produced — is a record of his “inquiry” (or ἱστορία historía, a word that passed into Latin and took on its modern meaning of history), being an investigation of the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars and including a wealth of geographical and ethnographical information. Although some of his stories were not completely accurate, he claimed that he was reporting only what had been told to him. Little is known of his personal history, since ancient records are scanty, contradictory and often fanciful.

9

Leonidas I

Leonidas Evlahos

Leonidas I was a hero-king of Sparta, the 17th of the Agiad line, one of the sons of King Anaxandridas II of Sparta, who was believed in mythology to be a descendant of Heracles, possessing much of the latter’s strength and bravery. Leonidas I is notable for his leadership at the Battle of Thermopylae, which has long been the topic of cultural inspiration, as it is perhaps the most famous military last stand of all time. His “against all odds” story is passed to us from the writings of the Greek Herodotus. He relates the story of 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians defending the Pass of Thermopylae against almost “2 million” Persians for three days.

Although modern historians have questioned the numbers presented by Herodotus, with most at around 100,000 to 250,000 invaders, the story has resonated with authors and poets for centuries over the inspiring bravery and resolution of the Spartans.

The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is often used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain to maximize an army’s potential and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds. Even more, both ancient and modern writers used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the superior power of a volunteer army of freemen defending native soil. The sacrifice of the Spartans and the Thespians has captured the minds of many throughout the ages and has given birth to many cultural references as a result.

8

Archimedes

Domenico-Fetti Archimedes 1620

Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. Modern experiments have tested claims that Archimedes designed machines capable of lifting attacking ships out of the water and setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors.

Archimedes is generally considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity, and one of the greatest of all time. He used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of pi. He also defined the spiral bearing his name, formulae for the volumes of surfaces of revolution and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers.

Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little-known in antiquity. Mathematicians from Alexandria read and quoted him, but the first comprehensive compilation was not made until c. 530 AD by Isidore of Miletus, while commentaries on the works of Archimedes, written by Eutocius in the 6th century AD, opened them to wider readership for the first time. The relatively few copies of Archimedes’ written work that survived through the Middle Ages were an influential source of ideas for scientists during the Renaissance, while the discovery, in 1906, of previously unknown works by Archimedes in the Archimedes Palimpsest has provided new insights into how he obtained mathematical results.

7

Pythagoras

Pythagoras

Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religious teaching in the late 6th century BC. He is often revered as a great mathematician, mystic and scientist, but he is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. However, because legend and obfuscation cloud his work even more than with the other pre-Socratic philosophers, one can give account of his teachings to a little extent, and some have questioned whether he contributed much to mathematics and natural philosophy. Many of the accomplishments credited to Pythagoras may actually have been accomplishments of his colleagues and successors. Whether or not his disciples believed that everything was related to mathematics and that numbers were the ultimate reality is unknown. It was said that he was the first man to call himself a philosopher, or lover of wisdom and Pythagorean ideas exercised a marked influence on Plato, and through him, all of Western philosophy.

6

Pericles

Pericles Pio-Clementino Inv269 N2

Pericles was a prominent and influential statesman, orator and general of Athens during the city’s Golden Age — specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that Thucydides, his contemporary historian, acclaimed him as “the first citizen of Athens.” Pericles turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War. The period during which he led Athens, roughly from 461 to 429 BC, is sometimes known as the “Age of Pericles,” though the period thus denoted can include times as early as the Persian Wars, or as late as the next century.

Pericles promoted the arts and literature; this was a chief reason Athens holds the reputation of being the educational and cultural centre of the ancient world. He started an ambitious project that generated most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis (including the Parthenon). This project beautified the city, exhibited its glory, and gave work to the people. Furthermore, Pericles fostered Athenian democracy to such an extent that critics call him a populist.

Pericles’ most visible legacy can be found in the literary and artistic works of the Golden Age of Athens, most of which survive to this day. The Acropolis, though in ruins, still stands and is a symbol of modern Athens. A famous modern Greek historian wrote that these masterpieces are “sufficient to render the name of Greece immortal in our world.” Pericles also is lauded as “the ideal type of the perfect statesman in ancient Greece”, and his Funeral Oration is nowadays synonymous with the struggle for participatory democracy and civic pride.

5

Plato

Plato4-1

Plato, was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. In the famous words of A.N. Whitehead: “The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. I do not mean the systematic scheme of thought which scholars have doubtfully extracted from his writings. I allude to the wealth of general ideas scattered through them.” Plato’s dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric and mathematics.

4

Aristotle

Aristotle Altemps Inv8575

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates, Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle’s writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics.

Aristotle’s views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle’s philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as “a river of gold”), it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived.

3

Homer

Homer

In the Western classical tradition, Homer is the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, and is revered as the greatest ancient Greek epic poet. These epics lie at the beginning of the Western canon of literature, and have had an enormous influence on the history of literature.

The formative influence played by the Homeric epics in shaping Greek culture was widely recognized, and Homer was described as the teacher of Greece.

The Iliad and the Odyssey reveal much about the values of the ancient Greeks. The heroes display honor, courage, and eloquence, as when Achilles rallies his troops. For almost 3,000 years, the epic of Homer have inspired writers and artists around the world.

2

Socrates

Socrates Louvre

Socrates was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato’s dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.

Through his portrayal in Plato’s dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who also lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. It is Plato’s Socrates that also made important and lasting contributions to the fields of epistemology and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains strong in providing a foundation for much western philosophy that followed.

As one recent commentator has put it, Plato, the idealist, offers “an idol, a master figure, for philosophy. A Saint, a prophet of the ‘Sun-God,’ a teacher condemned for his teachings as a heretic.”

1

Alexander the Great

Garalex

Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας), was a king of Macedon, a state in northern ancient Greece. Born in Pella, Greece in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16. By the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas. He was undefeated in battle, and is considered one of history’s most successful commanders.

Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II of Macedon, to the throne in 336 BC after Philip was assassinated. Upon Philip’s death, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. He was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father’s military expansion plans. In 334 BC he invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire. At that point his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.

Seeking to reach the “ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea,” he invaded India in 326 BC, but was eventually forced to turn back at the demand of his troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in several states ruled by the Diadochi – Alexander’s surviving generals and heirs.

Alexander’s legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander’s settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and features prominently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves and military academies throughout the world.download (2)

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