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10 Pictures facts you must know this Sunday

download (17)--all continents1. Each continent on the earth starts and end with same letter
2.The word Queue is the only word pronounced same as first letterimages--Q
3.The earth we live in is the only planet in solar system not named after a God because human live here .images--earth in solar system
4.Elephant is the only mammal on earth which can not jump.019 - Copy
5.More people are killed by bees than by snakes.

download (11)--Honey bee
6.More number of people are allergic to cow milk than other food.
download (3)--cow milk
7.Pure honey is only food which never spoils.Proved from Egypt Pharaoh tomb.download (3)--pure honey
8.Most of the dust particles on your bed are from dead skin.images--dust of skin
9.The longest flight in time recorded for a chicken is 13 seconds.download (30)
10.It is impossible to sneeze with open eye .download (17)--sneeze with eye

Featured post

Tipu’ the barbarian

Maka-hiya or Lajwant

Family  Mimosoideae / Mimosaceae
Makahiya
Mimosa pudica Linn.
BASHFUL MIMOSA

Pa chou cao 

Scientific names Other common names
Mimosa hispidula Kunth Babain (Ilk.) 
Mimosa pudica Linn. Damohia (Tag.)
Mimosa pudica var. pudica Dilgansusu (Ilk.)
Harupai (S. L. Bis.)
Huya-huya (Bis.)
Kiromkirom (S. L. Bis.)
Makahia (Pang., Tag.)
Sipug-sipug (Sub.) 
Tuyag-huyag (P. Bis.)
Torog-torog (Bik.)
Bashful mimosa (Engl.)
Humble plant (Engl.)
Sensitive plant (Engl.)
Shame plant (Engl.)
Tickle-Me plant (Engl.)
Touch-me-not (Engl.)
Makahia is a common name shared by Mimosa pudica (bashful mimosa) and Biophytum sensitivum (Damong bingkalat, little tree plant).
Mimosa pudica L. is an accepted name The Plant List
Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Laajak, Lajjavathi, Lajjabati.
CHINESE: Pa chou cao, Zhi xiu cao, Hu he cao, Han xiu cao.
DANISH: Almindelig mimose.
DUTCH: Kruidje-roer-me-niet.
FINNISH: Tuntokasvi.
FRENCH: Mimeuse commune, Mimeuse pudique, Sensitive.
GERMAN: Gemeine Mimose, Sinnpflanze.
HINDI: Chuimui, Lajaalu, Lajjavanthi, Lajouni.
ITALIAN / SWEDISH: Sensitiva.
MALAYSIAN: Semalu.
SANSKRIT: Khadiraka, Lajjalu, Namaskaar, Namaskaari, Raktapaadi, Samangaa, Shamipatra.
SPANISH: Dormidera, Sensitiva, Vergonzosa.
TAMIL: Tottalavaadi.
TELUGU: Attaapatti.
Botany
Makahiya is a diffusely spreading, half-woody herb, with branched stems up to 1 meter long, sparingly prickly with numerous deflexed, bristly hairs. The leaves are very sensitive, both pinnae and leaflets, folding when touched. Pinnae are usually 4, digitately arranged at the end of each petiole, and 4 to 9 centimeters long. The leaflets are narrowly oblong, inequilateral, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, sessile, sparingly bristly, with pointed tips. Heads are long-peduncled, solitary or 2 to 3 in each axil, about 1 centimeter in diameter. Pods are flat, slightly recurved, 1 to 2 centimeters long, with 3 to 5 one-sided joints that fall away on maturity. Florets are red in the upper part with pink to lavender filaments.

Distribution
– Common weed widely distributed in the Philippines in open, moist, waste places, open grasslands and open thickets, at low and medium altitudes in settled areas.
– Introduced from tropical America.
– Pantropic weed.

Constituents
– Seed contains a toxic alkaloid, mimosine, a non-protein alpha-amino acid, known to cause hair loss and depressed growth in mammals (an unlikely event in humans as this will require unusually large doses).
– Roots yield flavonoids, phytosterol, alkaloids, amino acids, tannins, glycoside, fatty acids.
– Leaf extract have yielded an adrenaline-like substance.
– Seeds contain a mucilage composed of d-xylose and d-glucoronic acid, yielding 17% greenish yellow fatty oil.
– Plant contains (1) tubulin with an ability to bind colchicene with its sulfhydryl groups. (2) crocetin dimethyl ester.

– Plant yields turgorine.
– Leaves and stems reported to contain the alkaloid mimosine; leaves yield mucilage; the roots yield tannins.
– Proximate composition showed a moisture content of 9.67% ±0.15, protein 8.37% ± 0.15, fat 1.43% ±0.01, ash 3.57% ±0.06, crude fiber 3.30%, carbohydrate 73.7%. Vitamin analysis yielded ascorbic acid 13.5 mg/100g, thiamine 0.60, riboflavin 1.10, and niacin 0.40. (48)
– Methanolic extract of leaves yielded terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, quinines, phenols, tannins, saponins, and coumarins. (60)

Properties
– Considered expectorant, anti asthmatic. analgesic, antispasmodic, alterant, sedative and antidepressant.
– Roots are bitter, astringent, acrid, alexipharmic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, constipating, cooling, diuretic, emetic, febrifuge, resolvent, vulnerary.
– Leaves are bitter, sudorific, tonic.
– Emetic effect attributed to mimosine.
– Studies have suggested antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, and aphrodisiac properties.

Leaflet movement physiology
 The leaflets fold together in the early evening and reopens at sunrise. It is called bashful or sensitive because the leaflets fold together on touching, warming and shaking. The phenomenon is called seismonastic movement due to a rapid change in turgor pressure and changes in membrane permeability in the pulvini cells in the leaf regions with rapid movement of calcium ions. At night, the leaves also fold and bend, termed nyctonastic movements (reaction to absence of light).
 When the leaflets fold together on touching, they reopen in about 10 minutes.
• Seismonastic Movement / Actin Cystoskeleton: Study showed fragmentation of actin filaments occurring during bending was involved in the regulation of movement. The effect of phosphatase inhibitors on the actin cytoskeleton affects dynamic reorganization of actin filaments and causes the seismonastic movement.

Parts utilized
Whole plant, leaves, roots.

Uses
Folkloric
– In the Philippines, roots used as diuretic; also used for dysentery and dysmenorrhea.
– Entire plant in decoction used as alterant and antiasthmatic.
– Root considered aphrodisiac, and used for bladder gravel and similar urinary complaints.
– Decoction or infusion of leaves used in asthma; expectorant.
– Used for hypertension, menorrhagia, glandular swelling, sore throat and hoarseness.
– Powdered seeds applied to wounds and sores.
– Bruised leaves applied to bruises.
– Decoction of leaves used for diabetes.
– Powdered roots and leaves taken with milk for piles and fistula.
– Juice applied externally to fistulous sores.
– Poultice of leaves for glandular swellings.
– Leaves and roots used for piles and fistula.
– Used as antifertility agent in some parts of India.
– 1:1 ethanol water extract used for pain relief.
– Seeds used a coffee substitute
– In China, used for treatment of anxiety and depression.
– In Ayurveda, used as antiasthmatic, aphrodisiac, analgesic and antidepressant; also used in diseases associated with corrupted bile and blood, bilious fever, piles, jaundice, leprosy, ulcers, and small pox.
– In India, used for birth control.
– In Ayurveda, root is used as vulnerary, and for the treatment of leprosy, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaints, inflammation, asthma, fatigue, and blood diseases. In the Unani system, decoction of root is used as a gargle to reduce toothache. 
(52)
– In the Antiles, Guiana, and La Reunion, roots used vomitive.
– In Indo-China, seeds used as emetic.
– In Mexico, used to alleviate depression.
– In Punjab and Cashmere, seeds used for sore throat.
– In Concan, paste of leaves applied to hydrocoeles and glandular swellings.
– Infusion of leaves used for dysentery; also as bitter tonic.
– Roots used for leucoderma, vaginopathy, metropathy, ulcers, dysentery, inflammations, jaundice, asthma, small pox, strangury, fevers.
– Leaves used for hydrocoele, hemorrhoids, fistula, scrofula, conjunctivitis, wounds and hemorrhages.
– Whole plants used for bladder calculi; externally, for edema, rheumatism, myalgia and uterine tumors.
– Whole plant, crushed, used for itching and scabies.
– In Malaysia, root decoction drunk as tonic; pounded leaves applied as poultice on body swellings. 
(48)

Studies
• Antimicrobial: Study showed antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Citrobacter divergens and Klebsiella pneumonia. (6)
• Antimicrobial: Ethanolic extracts activity against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, A. flavus and T. rubrum. The antimicrobial activity was attributed to the presence of active constituents like alkaloids or tannins.
• Anticonvulsant: Study showed intraperitoneal use of Mimosa pudica decoction protected mice against pentylentetrazol and strychnine-induced seizures.
• Plant extracts showed the plant to be a moderate diuretic, depressed duodenal contractions (similar to atropine), promoted nerve regeneration and reduce menorrhagia.
• Also shown to have antidepressant activity.
• Antifertility Effect / Roots: Studies on the root extract of M. pudica showed antifertility effect with prolongation of the estrous cycle and disturbance of the secretion of gonadotropin hormones in albino mice. 
(2)
• Antitoxin / Sea Snake Venom: A study in India screened several herbal plants for antivenin activity against common sea snake venom Enhydrina schistosa, the most toxic among the common sea snakes. The investigation showed antivenom activity in the alcoholic extract of Mimosa pudica, Mucuna pruriens, and Andrographis paniculata. 
(3)
• Antitoxin: Study on the aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica showed significant inhibitory effect on Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.
 (9)
• Antitoxin / Venom Neutralizing: Of 17 plants screened, only M pudica showed 100% ability in neutralizing venom lethality. Study showed the potential use of M pudica as an antivenom agent of plant origin against five poisonous snake venoms found in Malaysia.
• Two new C-glycosylflavones from Mimosa pudica: Two new C-glycosylflavones were isolated from the whole plant of Mimosa pudica, and their structures were determined as 6,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxyl-8-C-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)]-?-d-glucopyranosyl flavone (1), 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-8-C[?-d-apiose-(1 ? 4)]-?-d-glycopyranosyl flavone (2). 
(4)
• Chromoblastomycosis: Study isolated Fonsecaea from the thorns of M pudica and suggests it could be a natural source of infection for the fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi.
• Seed Mucilage / Sustained-Release Excipient: Study showed the dissolution profile from formulation containing mucilage to drug in the proportion of 1:40 was found to be similar to the commercial sustained-release formulation of diclofenac.
• Anti-Depressant: Study suggests that M pudica produces antidepressant effect in rats with a profile similar to two tricyclic antidepressants.
• Mimosine / Anti-Malarial: Mimosine found to be an iron chelator
 acting on malarial bugs by preventing the replication of cells.
• Apoptotic: Mimosine also causes apoptosis and studied for treating ovarian cancer and other highly vascularized tumors.
• Anthelmintic: The Anthelmintic effect of Makahiya (Mimosa pudica) leaves Extract in Native Chicken (Gallus domesticus) naturally infected with Gastro-intestinal Parasites (Thesis) (5)
• Anti-Hepatotoxic / Antioxidant: Study showed the co-administration of Mimosa pudica aqueous extract significantly lowered the level of lipid peroxidation in alcohol-fed mice. (16)
• Anti-Hyperglycemic: Mimosa pudica is one of eight medicinal plants in an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, Ilogen-Excel, showing antihyperglycemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (17)
• Nerve-Regenerative: (1) Study showed Mimosa pudica extract possess nerve-regenerative potential in rats with sciatic nerve injury. (2) In rats with experimentally injured sciatic nerves, nerve regeneration was 30-40% higher in rats treated with M. pudica extract than the hydrocortisone treated group.
• Antidiabetic Activity / Leaves: In a study of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica leaves showed significant decrease of blood glucose level compared with Metformin as standard drug. (18)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Comparative antioxidant, antibacterial and general toxicity studies on extracts of two Bangladeshi medicinal plants, M pudica and M rubicau, showed both exhibited prominent antioxidant property. While M. rubicaulis did not show any antibacterial activity, M pudica displayed considerable bacteriostatic activity against all six bacterial strains tested – B cereus, B subtilis, E coli, ampicillin-resistant E coli, S aureus and P aeruginosa.
• Antinociceptive / Toxicity Studies: In an acute toxicity study, a single dose of aqueous extract of 2000 mg KBW showed no clinical signs of toxicity or mortality. Study also showed dose-dependent central and peripheral analgesic property. (22)
• Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study screened a chloroform extract for hypolipidemic activity in hyperlipidemia induced by an atherogenic diet in Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant hypolipidemic effect with lowering of the serum levels of biochemical parameters (lowering of TC, triglycerides, LDL,VLDL) with a significant rise in HDL, similar to standard drug atorvastatin. The extract showed significant protection of the atherogenic index against hyperlipidemia. Biologically active phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, glycosides, and alkaloids may be responsible for the hypolipidemic effect. (23)
• Tannins / Antivenom: Study showed tannins obtained from M. pudica was better than tannic acid in neutralizing the lethality of N. kaouthia venom in vitro. Results suggest M. pudica has a potential for treating N. Kaouthia snakebites. (25)
• Wound Healing
: (1) Study of the methanolic extract exhibited good wound healing activity, an effect attributable to phenol constituents. (2) Study of shoot and root extracts showed good wound healing activity when compared to standard drug Gentamicin. (3) In an incision wound model, topical application of chloroform and methanolic root extracts showed wound-healing activity with a significant rise in breaking strength, dry weight, and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue. (12)(28)(29)
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of a methanolic extract of leaves of M. pudica in carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in wistar albino rats. Results showed significant hepatoprotective effect with lowering of biochemical parameters and confirming histopathological changes. Results were comparable to standard hepatoprotective drug Silymarin. Effects may be due to active phytoconstituents flavonoids, glycosides, and alkaloids. (31) The oral administration of crude powder of Mimosa pudica showed hepatoprotective activity of M. pudica on experimentally induced carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxic rats. (54)
• Antiulcer: Evaluation in rats of extracts of M. pudica for anti-ulcer activity in ulcer models — aspirin, alcohol, and pyloric ligation — showed the alcoholic extract to significantly decrease the volume of gastric acid secretion, PH, free acidity and ulcer index. (32)
• Homeophathic Mother Tinctures: Study showed significant differences in samples of mother tinctures. Alcohol content influenced the viscosity of tinctures.
• Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated the total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of ethanol extracts of whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed. Results showed the leaf extract with the highest amount of TF and TP, Results suggested Mp could be a potential rice source of natural antioxidants. (33)
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant effect of an ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica against free radical damage by different assay methods (DPPH, NO, ABTS, and H2O2). Results showed potent activity on Nitric Oxide and DPPH, compared to ascorbic acid and rutin as standards. (34)
• Nootropic: Study evaluated nootropic effects in both acute and chronic models of amnesia induced by scopolamine and AlCl3. Results confirmed nootropic (cognition enhancement) activity of EEMP, attributed to flavonoids and its antioxidant property. (35)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed potent antinociceptive action confirming the extract’s central activity. In a carrageenan-induced paw edema model, results clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. (36)
• Antitumor / Glycosylflavones: Six glycosylflavones isolated from Mimosa pudica were evaluated for antitumor activity. Results showed inhibition on the proliferation of three tumor cells studies, viz. MCF-7, JAR, and N-2 A. (37)
• Cytotoxicity / Antioxidant: Various extracts of different plant parts (aerial parts and root) were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The methanolic crude extract of aerial parts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The petroleum ether and methanol crude extract showed potential cytotoxic activities by brine shrimp lethality assay. All crude extracts showed poor or no activity against test organisms. (38)
• Mimosine Extraction: Mimosine, β-[N-(3-hydroxypyridone-4)]-α-aminopropionic acid, occurs in the shoots and stem of Mimosa pudica L. Study describes the extraction of mimosine using leaves, branches, and stems of sensitive plants aged about 4 months. Mimosine solution extracted by 70% ethanol solvent was condensed by releasing ethanol to make drinks. The product contains a variety of amino acids and minerals. (39)
• Hypolipidemic / Butter Induced Hyperlipidemia: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic activity of M. pudica extract n high fat diet induced models of hyperlipidemia in rats. An ethanol extract showed significant hypolipidemic effects with decrease in TC, LDL, Triglycerides, and VLDL, and increase in HDL comparable to standard drug Lovastatin. (40)
• Anti-Asthmatic / Roots: Study evaluated the antiasthmatic activity of aqueous extract of Mimosa pudica on in vitro and in vivo animal models. Results showed anti-asthmatic activity which could to attributed to bronchodilating, antihistaminic (H1-antagonist), mast cell stabilizing properties, suggesting potential in prophylaxis and management of asthma. (42)
• Adaptogenic / Nootropic: Study evaluated the adaptogenic activity of an ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica in chronic Alzheimer’s model. Results showed significant improvement in memory, observed from test models, viz. morris water maze, radial arm maze. For adaptogenic testing, using Forced swim test, the EEMP showed significant reduction in swimming endurance time. Results suggest the EE at dose of 500 mg/kbw p.o. produces potential changes in chronic Alzheimer’s model and stress. (43)
• Suppressive Effects on LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators: Study isolated fourteen compounds from extract of whole plant. Some compounds were tested for anti-inflammatory effects, viz. ethyl gallate (3), gallic acid (10), caffeic acid (7), L-mimosine (12), jasmonic acid (11), crocin (14) and crocetin (4). The compounds showed anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro through reduction of LPS-induced pro-inflammatorry mediators. (44)
• Pilot Clinical Studies Menorrhagia: 1986 Pilot clinical studies evaluated Mimosa pudica in women with excessive menstrual bleeding. Findings showed promise for further detailed trials in a larger sample size of patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Tolerability of M. pudica was good. Result suggest conventional phase 1 studies with organ function tests, prior to embarking on large scale phase III studies. (45)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of M. pudica leaves using carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma testing in albino rats. Results showed significant dose dependent anti-inflammatory effect in acute and chronic phases of inflammation. (46)
• Antifungal: Study evaluated the antifungal activity of M. pudica extract against five potentially pathogenic microorganisms: Trichophyton mentagrophyte, T. verrocuson, Microsporum nanum, Aspergillus niger, and A. flavus. Antifungal activity against the isolates increased significantly with concentration. No activity was seen against Aspergillus niger. (47)
• ß-Adrenoreceptor Mediated Relaxation of Myometrium: Study investigated the molecular mechanism of tocolytic activity of methanol extract of M. pudica seeds on isolated uterine strips of pregnant buffaloes. Results showed concentration dependent inhibitory effect on buffalo myometrium, probably through inhibitory ß-receptors. Calcium channels did not seem to regulate the tocolytic effect of the seeds extract. (50)
• Antimalarial / Leaves: Study evaluated the ethanolic extract of leaves of P. niruri and Mimosa pudica for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei infections in mice. The leaf extracts showed significant antiplasmodial activity in all three models of antimalarial evaluation. Phytochemical screening yielded antiplasmodial constituents such as terpenoids, flavonoids, and alkaloids. (53)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Free Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated the in vitro free radical content and anti-inflammatory activity of Mimosa pudica using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay and cotton wool granuloma in rats. Results showed the ethanolic extract of MP possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties. The reference drug was ascorbic acid. (54)
• Analgesic / Antiepileptic / / Free Radical Scavenging: Study of ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Mimosa pudica on rodents showed potent dose dependent analgesic activity by hot plate, tail flick, and acetic acid-induced writhing in rats. Antiepileptic activity was evidenced by significant reduction in the duration of seizures induced by MES and delayed onset of tonic-clonic seizures produced by PTZ and INH. Decreased locomotor activity was assessed through actophotometer, rotarod test, and traction test in mice. (55)
• Phytochemical Profiling / Bioactive Compounds: Study GC-MS study and phytochemical profiling yielded a number of bioactive phytocompounds such as glycerin, phytol, myo-inositol and squalene, all of which possess a wide range of proven therapeutic uses. (56)
• Immunomodulatory / Free Radical Scavenging / Flavonoids: Flavonoid isolated from dried samples of M. pudica exhibited dose dependent enhancement of activity in DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The flavonoids also showed in vitro growth stimulatory effect on isolated normal lymphocytes. (57)
• Diuretic: Study evaluated M. pudica for diuretic activity using the lipschitz test. Results showed significant diuretic activity at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kbw by increasing total urine volume and ion concentration of Na, K, and Cl. Furosemide was used as standard drug. (59)
• Aphrodisiac / Roots: Study evaluated M. pudica ethanolic extract of roots for its effect on libido of sexually normal Swiss albino male mice. General libido and potency was compared with standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. Results showed a significant and sustained increase in the aphrodisiac activity of normal male mice, with increased libido and hormone levels of testosterone, without adverse effects. (61)
• Glucuronoxylan / Drug Release Formulation / Seeds: Glucuronoxylan, a polysaccharide extruded from the seeds of M. pudica, is used for drug release (delayed/targeted/sustained release) formulations due to its high swelling index. M. pudica (Singh et al 2009; Kumar & Kumar 2011; Ahuja et al 2013) (63)
• Mimosine: Mimosine, a ß-[N-(3-hydroxypyridone-4)]-
α-aminopropionic acid, occurs in the shoots and stem of Mimosa pudica. Mimosine is synthesized from 3,4-dhydropyridine and O-acetylserine through the action of an isoform of cystein synthase. Mimosine has various pharmacological properties i.e., antimicrobial, the ability to block the cell cycle before G1/S transition, inhibit cardiac fibrosis, prevent neuronal death. (39)
• Alternative Therapy for Urinary Tract Infections / Roots: Study evaluat3d the therapeutic effect of root extracts against urinary tract infections. Results suggest decocted roots of M. pudica is comparable in effect to commercial drug in the treatment of urinary tract infection. (64)
• Anxiolytic / Antidepressant: The review focuses on the anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of M. pudica. The anxiolytic activity of M. pudica could be explained by the present of some components in extracts that interact with benzodiazepine/GABAA receptors as agonists, or with 5-HT1A receptors as agonists, or with NMDA receptors as antagonists. (65)

• CNS Depressant / Antinociceptive / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the CNS depressant (open field and hole cross test) and antinociceptive activity (acetic acid writhing test and formalin induced pain) of methanolic extract of aerial parts. In open-field and hole cross test, there was statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in locomotor activity. There was significant (p<0.05) and dose dependent decrease in writhing effects in acetic acid and formalin induced inflammatory pain. (66)
• Analgesic / Antiepileptic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiepileptic and analgesic properties and effect of leaves on motor activities on rodents. The ethyl acetate extract showed dose-dependent analgesic activity. There was also dose-dependent improvement in motor performance. Extract showed significant reduction (p<0.01 and p<0.001) reduction in duration of seizures induced by maximal electro shock (MES) and delayed duration of convulsion against seizure induces. (67)
• Diuretic / Laxative / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol extract of leaves for diuretic and laxative activities in wistar albino rats. Results showed significant diuretic as well as laxative activities in a dose dependent manner. Activities were comparable to furosemide and agar-agar. (68)
• Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol and aqueous extracts of M. pudica leaves against fungi isolated from razor bumps. Trichophyton verrucosum and T. soudanense showed the highest diameter of zone of inhibition. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts showed to be more effective than aqueous extracts. (69)
• Diuretic / Roots: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of root in albino rats. Results showed significant diuretic activity as evidenced by increased urine volume and enhancement of elimination of sodium, potassium, and chloride. Results suggest a beneficial role in volume overload conditions. (70)

Availability
– Wild-crafted.
– Tinctures, powders, seeds, extracts in the cybermarke

Small JCB for domestic work and gardening

Jackfruit in treatment of Diabates

One of the method to decrease your weight.

History of the Taj Hotel

Interesting facts of Knowledge which you must know.

These fascinating tidbits are collected from a number of files that have been sent to me over the years. Some, however, may not be correct. If you find an error, please bring it to my attention!

English Language

  1. “I am.” is the shortest complete sentence in the English language. (This discounts imperative commands like “Go!” or “Up!”, whose status as “complete” sentences is debatable.)
  2. Clans of long ago that wanted to get rid of their unwanted people without killing them use to burn their houses down – hence the expression “to get fired.”
  3. Dreamt is the only English word that ends in the letters “mt.”
  4. Facetious and abstemious contain all the vowels in the correct order, as does arsenious, meaning “containing arsenic.”
  5. In English pubs, ale is ordered by pints and quarts. So in old England, when customers got unruly, the bartender would yell at them to mind their own pints and quarts and settle down. It’s where we get the phrase “mind your P’s and Q’s.”
  6. In Shakespeare’s time, mattresses were secured on bed frames by ropes. When you pulled on the ropes the mattress tightened, making the bed firmer to sleep on. That’s where the phrase, “goodnight, sleep tight” came from.
  7. It’s impossible to sneeze with your eyes open. (DON’T try this at home!)
  8. It was the accepted practice in Babylon, 4,000 years ago, that for a month after the wedding, the bride’s father would supply his son-in-law with all the mead he could drink. Mead is a honey beer, and because their calendar was lunar based, this period was called the “honey month” or what we know today as the “honeymoon.”
  9. Many years ago in England, pub frequenters had a whistle baked into the rim or handle of their ceramic cups. When they needed a refill, they used the whistle to get some service. “Wet your whistle,” is the phrase inspired by this practice.
  10. No word in the English language rhymes with month, orange, silver or purple.
  11. Stewardesses is the longest word that is typed with only the left hand.
  12. The combination “ough” can be pronounced in nine different ways. The following sentence contains them all: “A rough-coated, dough-faced, thoughtful ploughman strode through the streets of Scarborough; after falling into a slough, he coughed and hiccoughed.”
  13. The dot over the letter ‘i’ is called a tittle.
  14. The longest one-syllable words in the English language are screeched and scratched.
  15. The longest place-name still in use is Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupo-kaiwenuakitnatahu, a New Zealand hill.
  16. The longest word in the English language, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis. The only other word with the same amount of letters is pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconioses, its plural.
  17. The name Jeep came from the abbreviation used in the army for the “General Purpose” vehicle, G.P.
  18. The only 15 letter word that can be spelled without repeating a letter is uncopyrightable.
  19. The phrase “rule of thumb” is derived from an old English law which stated that you couldn’t beat your wife with anything wider than your thumb.
  20. The term “the whole 9 yards” came from W.W.II fighter pilots in the Pacific. When arming their airplanes on the ground, the .50 caliber machine gun ammo belts measured exactly 27 feet, before being loaded into the fuselage. If the pilots fired all their ammo at a target, it got “the whole 9 yards.”
  21. The word “Checkmate” in chess comes from the Persian phrase “Shah Mat,” which means “the king is dead”.
  22. The word “set” has more definitions than any other word in the English language.
  23. There are only four words in the English language which end in “-dous” tremendous, horrendous, stupendous and hazardous.
  24. There is a seven letter word in the English language that contains ten words without rearranging any of its letters, “therein”: the, there, he, in, rein, her, here, ere, therein, herein.
  25. To “testify” was based on men in the Roman court swearing to a statement made by swearing on their testicles. [Or it could be the less interesting “testis”, meaning “third person standing by” or “witness”. As I say above, don’t assume that any of these is correct… 8-)]
  26. Underground and underfund are the only words in the English language that begins and ends with the letters “und.”

Animals

  1. A cat has 32 muscles in each ear.
  2. A dragonfly has a life span of 24 hours.
  3. A duck’s quack doesn’t echo, and no one knows why. (Note: this was disproved by Mythbusters.)
  4. A goldfish has a memory span of three seconds. (This was also disproved by Mythbusters.)
  5. A pregnant goldfish is called a twit.
  6. A shark is the only fish that can blink with both eyes.
  7. An iguana can stay under water for 28 minutes.
  8. An ostrich’s eye is bigger than its brain.
  9. Camel’s milk does not curdle.
  10. Cat’s urine glows under a blacklight.
  11. Cats have over one hundred vocal sounds, while dogs only have about ten.
  12. Emus and kangaroos cannot walk backwards, and are on the Australian coat of arms for that reason.
  13. Giraffes have no vocal cords.
  14. In the last 4000 years, no new animals have been domesticated.
  15. It takes 3,000 cows to supply the NFL with enough leather for a year’s supply of footballs.
  16. It takes a lobster approximately seven years to grow to be one pound.
  17. Many hamsters only blink one eye at a time.
  18. Murphy’s Oil Soap is the chemical most commonly used to clean elephants.
  19. The giant squid has the largest eyes in the world.
  20. The male gypsy moth can “smell” the virgin female gypsy moth from 1 mile away.
  21. The muzzle of a lion is like a fingerprint: no two lions have the same pattern of whiskers.
  22. The world’s termites outweigh the world’s humans 10 to 1.
  23. There are more chickens than people in the world.
  24. Tigers have striped skin, not just striped fur.
  25. When opossums are playing ‘possum, they are not “playing.” They actually pass out from sheer terror.

People

  1. Al Capone’s business card said he was a used furniture dealer.
  2. Alfred Hitchcock didn’t have a belly button. It was eliminated when he was sewn up after surgery.
  3. Babies are born without knee caps. They don’t appear until the child reaches 2-6 years of age.
  4. Barbie’s measurements if she were life size: 39-23-33.
  5. David Prowse was the guy in the Darth Vader suit in Star Wars. He spoke all of Vader’s lines, and didn’t know that he was going to be dubbed over by James Earl Jones until he saw the screening of the movie.
  6. Each king in a deck of playing cards represents a great king from history. Spades – King David, Clubs – Alexander the Great, Hearts – Charlemagne, and Diamonds – Julius Caesar.
  7. Ingrown toenails are hereditary.
  8. Isaac Asimov is the only author to have a book in every Dewey-decimal category.
  9. John Larroquette of “Night Court” and “The John Larroquette Show” was the narrator of “The Texas Chainsaw Massacre.”
  10. John Lennon’s first girlfriend was named Thelma Pickles.
  11. Leonardo Da Vinci invented the scissors.
  12. Lincoln Logs were invented by Frank Lloyd Wright’s son.
  13. Michael Jordan makes more money from Nike annually than all of the Nike factory workers in Malaysia combined.
  14. Mr. Rogers is an ordained minister.
  15. On average, 100 people choke to death on ball-point pens every year. BE CAREFUL!
  16. Only one person in two billion will live to be 116 or older.
  17. Only two people signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4th, John Hancock and Charles Thomson. Most of the rest signed on August 2, but the last signature wasn’t added until 5 years later.
  18. Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing.
  19. Roger Ebert is the only film critic to have ever won the Pulitzer prize.
  20. Telly Savalas and Louis Armstrong died on their birthdays.
  21. The airplane Buddy Holly died in was the “American Pie.” (Thus the name of the Don McLean song.)
  22. The average person falls asleep in seven minutes.
  23. The average person’s left hand does 56% of the typing.
  24. The characters Bert and Ernie on Sesame Street were named after Bert the cop and Ernie the taxi driver in Frank Capra’s “Its A Wonderful Life.”
  25. The most common name in the world is Mohammed.
  26. The name Wendy was made up for the book “Peter Pan.”
  27. The name for Oz in the “Wizard of Oz” was, thought up when the creator, Frank Baum, looked at his filing cabinet and saw A-N, and O-Z, hence “Oz.”
  28. Who’s that playing the piano on the “Mad About You” theme? Paul Reiser himself.
  29. Winston Churchill was born in a ladies’ room during a dance.

Miscellaneous

  1. A dime has 118 ridges around the edge.
  2. All 50 states are listed across the top of the Lincoln Memorial. Because of perspective, 26 or 27 are visible (with a high-powered magnifying glass) on the back of the $5 bill.
  3. All of the clocks in the movie “Pulp Fiction” are stuck on 4:20.
  4. Almonds are members of the peach family.
  5. Average life span of a major league baseball: 7 pitches.
  6. Columbia University is the second largest landowner in New York City, after the Catholic Church.
  7. Cranberries are sorted for ripeness by bouncing them; a fully ripened cranberry can be dribbled like a basketball.
  8. Did you know that there are coffee flavored PEZ?
  9. Donald Duck’s middle name is Fauntleroy.
  10. Dueling is legal in Paraguay as long as both parties are registered blood donors.
  11. February 1865 is the only month in recorded history not to have a full moon.
  12. Hang On Sloopy is the official rock song of Ohio.
  13. Hershey’s Kisses are called that because the machine that makes them looks like it’s kissing the conveyor belt.
  14. If you have three quarters, four dimes, and four pennies, you have $1.19. You also have the largest amount of money in coins without being able to make change for a dollar.
  15. In Britain, the Speaker of the House is not allowed to speak.(The Speaker is the moderator of the Parliamentary sessions and as such cannot participate in debates. S/he does speak, usually to tell others to shut up!)
  16. In every episode of Seinfeld there is a Superman somewhere.
  17. In most advertisements, including newspapers, the time displayed on a watch is 10:10. (REASON: The two upward hands are more like a smiling face.)
  18. In the 1940s, the FCC assigned television’s Channel 1 to mobile services (two-way radios in taxicabs, for instance) but did not re-number the other channel assignments. That is why your TV set has channels 2 and up, but no channel 1.
  19. In the great fire of London in 1666 half of London was burnt down but only 6 people were injured
  20. It takes about a half a gallon of water to cook macaroni, and about a gallon to clean the pot.
  21. Los Angeles’s full name is “El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de los Angeles de Porciuncula”- and can be abbreviated to 3.63% of its size: “L.A.”
  22. Maine is the only state whose name is just one syllable.
  23. Montpelier, Vermont is the only U.S. state capital without a McDonald’s.
  24. Most Americans’ car horns beep in the key of “F.”
  25. No NFL team which plays its home games in a domed stadium has ever won a Superbowl. (This became untrue in 2006-7 when Indy won, and 2010 when New Orleans won.)
  26. Nutmeg is extremely poisonous if injected intravenously.
  27. On a Canadian two dollar bill, the flag flying over the Parliament Building is an American flag. (Canada now uses a coin instead of a $2 bill… HR) Actually, this is false. See Snopes.
  28. On an American one-dollar bill, there is an owl in the upper left-hand corner of the “1” encased in the “shield” and a spider hidden in the front upper right-hand corner.
  29. One of the reasons marijuana is illegal today is because cotton growers in the 30s lobbied against hemp farmers — they saw it as competition.
  30. Peanuts are one of the ingredients of dynamite.
  31. Rubber bands last longer when refrigerated.
  32. Since 1896, the beginning of the modern Olympics, only Greece and Australia have participated in every Olympics.
  33. The Boston University Bridge (on Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts) is the only place in the world where a boat can sail under a train driving under a car driving under an airplane.
  34. The Eisenhower interstate system requires that one mile in every five must be straight. These straight sections are usable as airstrips in times of war or other emergencies.
  35. The Main Library at Indiana University sinks over an inch every year because when it was built, engineers failed to take into account the weight of all the books that would occupy the building.
  36. The Pentagon, in Arlington, Virginia, has twice as many bathrooms as is necessary. When it was built in the 1940s, the state of Virginia still had segregation laws requiring separate toilet facilities for blacks and whites.
  37. The Ramses brand condom is named after the great pharaoh Ramses II who fathered over 160 children.
  38. The San Francisco Cable cars are the only mobile National Monuments.
  39. The United States government keeps its supply of silver at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, NY.
  40. The cruise liner, Queen Elizabeth II, moves only six inches for each gallon of diesel that it burns.
  41. The first Ford cars had Dodge engines.
  42. The first toilet ever seen on television was on “Leave It To Beaver.”
  43. The highest point in Pennsylvania is lower than the lowest point in Colorado.
  44. The letters KGB stand for Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti.
  45. The microwave was invented after a researcher walked by a radar tube and a chocolate bar melted in his pocket.
  46. The national anthem of Greece has 158 verses. No one in Greece has memorized all 158 verses.
  47. The only two days of the year in which there are no North American professional sports games (MLB, NBA, NHL, or NFL) are the day before and the day after the Major League All-Star Game.
  48. The reason firehouses have circular stairways is from the days of yore when the engines were pulled by horses. The horses were stabled on the ground floor and figured out how to walk up straight staircases.
  49. The symbol on the “pound” key (#) is called an octothorpe.
  50. There are 293 ways to make change for a dollar.
  51. There are 336 dimples on a regulation golf ball.
  52. There are only thirteen blimps in the world. Nine of the thirteen blimps are in the United States.
  53. There are two credit cards for every person in the United States.
  54. Thirty-five percent of the people who use personal ads for dating are already married.
  55. Two-thirds of the world’s eggplant is grown in New Jersey.
  56. When the University of Nebraska Cornhuskers play football at home, the stadium becomes the state’s third largest city.

This page last updated April 27, 2017.

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